• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

THT 421.1

Known as:THT 421.1; B 421 fragment 1; THT 421.a; Bleistiftnummer 2401
Cite this page as:"THT 421.1". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 11 Dec. 2023).


Main find spot:Murtuq
Expedition code:T III M 146.5a
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:late

Text contents

Title of the work:History of Kuchean kings
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:History
Verse/Prose:prose; verse


Manuscript:THT 415-421
Material: ink on paper
Number of lines:2=5


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project Berlin, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


a1/// ye s̝paka ntwā ṣṣe śa rī¯ ¯r cau pa tne te ssa • 10 4 || ///
a2/// ///
b1/// ///
b2/// ktma no lypo ke ssa nte tā wma¯ ¯t śpā lmeṃ tsā ra ne • sa ṅ[kr]ā ///


a1 /// …ye ṣpäkäntwāṣṣe śarīr cau patne tessa • 10-4 ॥ ///
a2 /// ///
b1 /// ///
b2 /// (o)k tman= olypo kessante tāw mat śpālmeṃ tsāranesaṅkrā(m) ///


b2 Mehr als 80.000 erloschen in d[ies]em so vortrefflichen Kloster. (Schmidt 1974: 126)



This fragment has been partly edited apud no. 421 fragment 1 in Sieg and Siegling 1953: 280 and has now the pressmark THT 421.a.

Alternative linguistic/paleographic classifications

Peyrot 2008b L
Tamai 2011a C1


Online access

IDP: THT 421a; TITUS: THT 421


Sieg and Siegling 1953: 280


Carling 2000: a1 (52); Couvreur 1954a: a1 a2 b1 b2 (116); Schmidt 1974: b2 (126)


Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd. 2000. Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

Couvreur 1954a

Couvreur, Walter. 1954a. “Koetsjische literaire fragmenten uit de Berlijnse verzameling (naar aanleiding van Sieg & Siegling’s Tocharische Sprachreste).” Handelingen VIII der Zuidnederlandse Maatschappij voor Taal- en Letterkunde en Geschiedenis, 97–117.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Peyrot 2008b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2008b. Variation and change in Tocharian B. Vol. 15. Leiden Studies in Indo-European. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD thesis, Universität Göttingen.

Sieg and Siegling 1953

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1953. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, Heft 2. Fragmente Nr. 71-633. Edited by Werner Thomas. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Tamai 2011a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2011a. Paläographische Untersuchungen zum B-Tocharischen. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 138. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”