Work in progress

IOL Toch 931

Known as:IOL Toch 931
Cite this page as:Michaël Peyrot. "IOL Toch 931". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 28 Nov. 2023).


Editor:Michaël Peyrot


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:British Library (London)

Language and Script

Language:TB; Sanskrit
Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānavarga
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine


Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):3.6 × 5.0 cm
Number of lines:3


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project and the British Library.


a1/// [ne] s̝a ppo ykne sa : sa ///
a2/// [t]e na ta pa te : ku·e [ś]au ///
a3/// ·e – ///
b1/// – ddh· ///
b2/// – ṣe kyo to tra ya kn· ///
b3/// ·[mā] dvi ga ta rā ge bhya ///


a1 n1n2 /// (āke)ne ṣäp po-yknesa : sa ///
a2 n2n3 /// (jīvi)te na tapate : ku(s)e śau(lne) ///
a3 /// ·e – ///
b1 n4 /// (śu)ddh(asya) ///
b2 n5 /// – ṣek yototrä yakn(e) ///
b3 n6 /// (tas)mād vigatarāgebhya(ḥ) ///


a1 [TB] entirely, even until it ends (with death) [SKT] he (has recognised the [highest] place and is wise)
a2 [TB] (he who) is not tormented during his life [SKT] he who is (not tormented) during his life
a3 ...
b1 [SKT] for the pure (it is always poṣatha holiday)
b2 [TB] his manner always succeeds
b3 [SKT] therefore, for those who abstain from their desires


Parallel texts

Bernhard 1965: 227-229; Chakravarti 1930: 198-202; Hahn 2007: 60-61


On IDP, recto and verso are reversed.

Philological commentary

n1 Uv.16.11b-c/12b-c maraṇānte ca sarvaśaḥ / sa vai dṛṣṭapado dhīraḥ (Uv.16.11c dhīro)
n2 These lines are difficult to locate precisely, because they occur in Uv.16.11-13. Since line a is preceded by lines b-c in the fragment, a1 can only be 11b-c or 12b-c. Accordingly, a2 would be 12a or 13a respectively.
n3 Uv.16.12a/13a yo jīvite na tapate
n4 Uv.16.15b śuddhasya poṣathaḥ sadā
n5 Uv.16.15d sadā saṃpadyate vratam
n6 Uv.16.16c tasmād vigatarāgebhyo, here with the regular pausa variant vigatarāgebhya(ḥ)


Online access

IDP: IOL Toch 931


Tamai 2007b: №931; Peyrot 2008a: 102


Bernhard 1965

Bernhard, Franz. 1965. Udānavarga. Band I, Einleitung, Beschreibung der Handschriften, Textausgabe, Bibliographie. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden 10. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.

Chakravarti 1930

Chakravarti, Niranjan Prasad. 1930. L‘Udānavarga sanskrit, Texte sanscrit en transcription, avec traduction et annotations, suivi d‘une étude critique et de planches. Tome premier (Chapitres I à XXI). Paris: Geuthner.

Hahn 2007

Hahn, Michael. 2007. Vom rechten Leben, Buddhistische Lehren aus Indien und Tibet, Aus dem Sanskrit und aus dem Tibetischen übersetzt und herausgegeben. Frankfurt am Main/Leipzig: Verlag der Weltreligionen (im Insel Verlag).


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Peyrot 2008a

Peyrot, Michaël. 2008a. “More Sanskrit – Tocharian B bilingual Udānavarga fragments.” Indogermanische Forschungen 113: 83–125.

Tamai 2007b

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2007b. “An edition of the Tocharian fragments IOL Toch 853 – IOL Toch 1247 in the India Office Library, London.” The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.