Work in progress

A 408.n

Known as:A 408.n; THT 1042n; Bleistiftnummer 3111
Cite this page as:Michaël Peyrot. "A 408.n". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 24 Apr. 2024).


Editor:Michaël Peyrot


Main find spot:Sengim
Expedition code:T II S 19.21
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection

Language and Script


Text contents

Title of the work:Bhikṣuṇī-Prātimokṣasūtra
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Vinaya


Manuscript:A 415-416
Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):4.7 × 4.5 cm
Number of lines:5



a2/// – [l]y[ā] – ///
a3/// ā kla ṣlyāṃ yā ///
a4/// [y]ā mi ta¯ ¯r pā [yt]· ///
a5/// a śi s̝a¯ ¯k ma – ///
b1/// [ṣl]yāṃ yā mi ta¯ ¯r ///
b2/// puka¯ ¯l u pā dhyā yi ///
b3/// rś·· wi kā s̝s̝a(·) ///
b4/// pā [y](·)i ///


a2 /// – lyā – ///
a3 n1n2 /// ākläṣlyāṃ yā(mitär) ///
a4 /// yāmitär pāyt(i) ///
a5 n3 /// aśi ṣäk mä(rkampaläntu) ///
b1 n3 /// (āklä)ṣlyāṃ yāmitär ///
b2 /// pukäl upādhyāyi ///
b3 n4 /// rś·· wikāṣṣ-ä(ṃ) ///
b4 /// pāy(t)i ///


a2 ...
a3 ... should she do ... [to] the female disciple ...
a4 ... should she do ... – pātayantika [offence].
a5 ... the nun six ...
b1 ... should she do ... [to] the female disciple ...
b2 ... year ... female teacher ...
b3 ... she will remove her ...
b4 ... – pātayantika [offence].


Philological commentary

Ogihara 2009: 278 places this fragment in the section of the pātayantikas about the ordination ritual (Waldschmidt 1926: 133-152; Pāt.106-125 of the Sarvāstivādins). In particular, he adduces ṣäk 'six' and pukäl 'year'. While ṣäk 'six' might lead to a refinement of the classification, pukäl 'year' occurs too often to be of any help. A further indication of appurtenance to the ordination section is upādhyāyi 'female teacher', which appears to be the Tocharian A equivalent of Skt. upādhyāyā 'female teacher'.
n1 ākläṣlyāṃ: this is probably the attestation noted in Sieg et al. 1931: 64 as "Frgm.".
n2 ākläṣlyāṃ yāmitär: ākläṣlyāṃ is an; probably, the phrase pattern goes kusne aśi ... ākläṣlyāṃ yāmitär, meaning 'Which nun does (ordination) to a female disciple who ...', i.e. 'Which nun ordinates a female disciple who ...' (cf. also a4).
n3 ṣäk mä(rkampaläntu): cf. 'welche nicht zwei Jahre lang die sechs dharmas studiert hat', which occurs e.g. Sarv.Pāt.111, 112, 121, 122 (Waldschmidt 1926: 138-141.
n4 wikāṣṣ-ä(ṃ): pace Ogihara 2009: 278, who claims that is excluded, the paper on top of the s̝s̝a is abraded and an anusvāra may be lost. However, it cannot be ruled out that the word division is rather wikāṣ ṣä ///. As Ogihara 2009: 278 remarks, this will be the attestation wikāṣṣä .. noted in Sieg et al. 1931: 472 as "Frgm.".


The lower margin of the recto (upper of the verso) is preserved. In one frame with A 408.j-A 408.m and A 408.o-A 408.r. Ogihara 2009: 278 suggests that m-tht3349 and m-tht3335 may belong to the same leaf as is this fragment; he further considers the possibility that also A 408.q and A 408.r belong to the same leaf. Since this fragment belongs to the vinaya, it is assumed that it belongs to manuscript A 415-416, not to A 406-408.



Ogihara 2009: 74, 278; Ogihara 2009: 74, 278

Online access

IDP: THT 1042n



“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Ogihara 2009

Ogihara, Hirotoshi. 2009. “Researches about Vinaya-texts in Tocharian A and B [Recherches sur le Vinaya en tokharien A et B].” PhD thesis, Paris: École Pratique des Hautes Études.

Sieg et al. 1931

Sieg, Emil, Wilhelm Siegling, and Wilhelm Schulze. 1931. Tocharische Grammatik. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Waldschmidt 1926

Waldschmidt, Ernst. 1926. Bruchstücke des Bhikṣuṇī-Prātimokṣa der Sarvāstivādins, Mit einer Darstellung der Überlieferung des Bhikṣuṇī-Prātimokṣa in den verschiedenen Schulen. Königlich Preussische Turfan-Expeditionen, Kleinere Sanskrit-Texte 3. Leipzig: Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft/Brockhaus.