• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

PK NS 16

Known as:PK NS 16
Cite this page as:Georges-Jean Pinault; Hannes A. Fellner. "PK NS 16". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 03 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Georges-Jean Pinault; Hannes A. Fellner
Date of online publication:2014-07


Main find spot:Duldur-Akhur
Expedition code:DA Fd.
Collection:Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)

Language and Script

Language:TB; Sanskrit

Text contents

Title of the work:Karmavācanā
Passage:Poṣatha (Uposatha)
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Vinaya


Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):2.7 × 5.5 cm
Number of lines:4
Interline spacing:0.8 cm


a1/// (–) (·)[u] (·)m(·) [dh](·) [r](·) ya a nta rā [yi] ///
a2/// ka ri ṣyā mi śī la ska ndha sya ///
a3/// [s]· tri wā ci kpo sā t | | ·i ··e ///
a4/// (– – – – –) (·)[ā] (– – – – – –) ///
b1/// (– –) – (– –) – (– – – –) ///
b2/// – śi tyā mtsi sa || [sa] ma nv· h· ///
b3/// pā ñca da śi ka a haṃ bhi kṣu dh[ā] ///
b4/// (– –) ·o – ·i a bhyu pa ga c[ch]· ///


(āy)u(ṣ)m(aṃ) dh(ā)r(a)ya antarāyi(keṣu) (dharmeṣu) (pariśuddhaṃ) (ahaṃ)
(poṣathaṃ) kariṣyāmi śīlaskandhasya (pāripūraye) (evaṃ) (dvir) (api) (tṛr) (api) (॥)
a3 /// s(e) triwācik posāt । । (ñ)i(ś) (t)e(-ñemtsa) ///
a4 /// – – – – – ·ā – – – – – – ///
b1 /// – – – – – – – – – ///
b2 /// (te)śit yāmtsisa ॥
samanv(ā)h(arāyuṣmāṃ) (adya) (saṃghasya)
(poṣatha) pāñcadaśika ahaṃ bhikṣu dhā(rmikeṣu) (saṃghakarmaṇi) (cchandaṃ)
(dadāmi) (anum)o(dām)i abhyupagacch(āmi)


a1 Sanskrit
a2 Sanskrit
a3 This is the Uposatha [ceremony] effected by three words. | | I named such and such ...
b2 By making confession (deśita-) || Sanskrit
b3 Sanskrit
b4 Sanskrit


Philological commentary

The lines a1 to a2 have a parallel in the Sanskrit text IOL San 400 (=Ch. 00262.9), cf. de La Vallée Poussin 1913: 846, so do the lines b1 to b3, cf. Härtel 1956: 109 (§69).
As for the Tocharian part, line a3 corresponds to the one on the London fragment IOL San 400 a3 se trivācik posāt. The lines b2 to b3 have a parallel in the Sanskrit text IOL 400 a3 and a4 up to pāñcadaśika; afterwards there is a different text.
Starting from ahaṃ bhikṣu the line b3 to b4 have a parallel in the Sanskrit text IOL San 404 (=Ch. 00262.10) a2 to a3, cf. de La Vallée Poussin 1913: 846 and the text restored by Härtel 1956: 117 (§79, 2). Note that the Sanskrit form anumodāmi is incorrect for the expected middle anumode 'I approve'.


This tiny fragment belongs to the same manuscript as m-pkns124 and IOL San 400 and 404.



Couvreur 1957a: 316; Ogihara 2009a: 154-155, 461


Couvreur 1957a

Couvreur, Walter. 1957a. “Review of: Karmavācanā. Formulare für den Gebrauch im buddhistischen Gemeindeleben aus ostturkestanischen Sanskrit-Handschriften.” Indo-Iranian Journal 1: 315–17.

de La Vallée Poussin 1913

de La Vallée Poussin, Louis. 1913. “Nouveaux fragments de la collection Stein.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 1913: 843–55.

Härtel 1956

Härtel, Herbert. 1956. Karmavācanā. Formulare für den Gebrauch im buddhistischen Gemeindeleben aus ostturkestanischen Sanskrit-Handschriften. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden, III. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Ogihara 2009a

Ogihara, Hirotoshi. 2009a. “Researches about Vinaya-texts in Tocharian A and B [Recherches sur le Vinaya en tokharien A et B].” PhD thesis, Paris: École Pratique des Hautes Études.