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THT 605

Known as:THT 605; B 605; Bleistiftnummer 2121
Cite this page as:Michaël Peyrot. "THT 605". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-tht605 (accessed 14 Jun. 2024).


Editor:Michaël Peyrot
Date of online publication:2014-09


Main find spot:Shorchuk
Expedition code:T III Š 75.2
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection

Language and Script

Language:TA; TB
Linguistic stage:classical
Add. linguistic characteristics:late; hypercorrect

Text contents

Title of the work:dvādaśākṣarī
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Syllabary
Verse/Prose:prose; verse


Manuscript:THT 1128-1130
Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):6.0 × 30.1 cm
Number of lines:4
Interline spacing:1.5 cm



a1ṣca ṣña rṣa ṣṛ ṣṝ ṣa¯ ¯m ṣa ḥ sa sya sra sla sva sma sta sna sṇa sca s[ñ]a rsa sṛ sṝ sa¯ ¯m sa ḥ ha hya hra hla hva hma ///
a2hna hṇa hca hña rha hṛ ○ hṝ ha¯ ¯m ha ḥ wa wya wra wla wva wma wta wna wṇa wca wña rwa wṛ wṝ wa¯ ¯m wa [ḥ]
a3tsa tsya tsra tsla tsva tsma ○ tsta tsna tsṇa tsca tsña rtsa tsṛ tsṝ tsa¯ ¯m tsa ḥ ttsa ttsya ttsra ttsla ttsva ttsma ttsta ttsna tt[s](·)a
a4ttsca ttsña rttsa ttsṛ ttsṝ ttsa¯ ¯m ttsa ḥ || sa¯ ¯s śä kwe pi¯ ¯nt a mo¯ ¯k pi ktsi pa pyu ta¯ ¯k • || ||
b1|| ce a mo ka nta dha rma ca ndre yā tka pai ka tsi pa ññ[ä] [k]t[a] ññe p[e] rne ṣṣe a kā lksa ce ca me¯ ¯l ṣṣe na ña tse nta wi ko [y](·)·
b2rne ṣa mā ñña na kre ntau ○ na tsmo yeṃ ta rne • cme lne saṃ sā rne spo rto ma ne mā lle mā ṣtā ko¯ ¯ymä • ti kṣne [nd]ri
b3tā ko¯ ¯ymä ce kre¯ ¯nt yā ○ mo rsa mai tre ye mpa śi lyme e ṣe tā ko¯ ¯ymä • ta rya pi ṭa ka nta pi ṅke ma ne tā ko
b4¯ymä • se ce a mo¯ ¯k a klyi ye ntra po pa ññä kte tā ko yeṃ : • || || ce sa¯ ¯s a mo ka¯ ¯s to ṅki tsā [e]¯ ¯l wä¯ ¯s


a1ṣca ṣña rṣa ṣṛ ṣṝ ṣam ṣaḥ sa sya sra sla sva sma sta sna sṇa sca sña rsa sṛ sṝ sam saḥ ha hya hra hla hva hma (hta)
a2hna hṇa hca hña rha hṛ hṝ ham haḥ wa wya wra wla wva wma wta wna wṇa wca wña rwa wṛ wṝ wam waḥ
a3tsa tsya tsra tsla tsva tsma tsta tsna tsṇa tsca tsña rtsa tsṛ tsṝ tsam tsaḥ ttsa ttsya ttsra ttsla ttsva ttsma ttsta ttsna tts(ṇ)a
a4n1n2n3 ttsca ttsña rttsa ttsṛ ttsṝ ttsam ttsaḥsäs śäkwepint amok piktsi papyutäk • ॥ ॥
b1n4n5n6ce amokänta dharmacandre yātka paikatsi paññäktaññe perneṣṣe akālksa ce camelṣṣena ñatsenta wikoy(ntä)-
b2-r-nen7 ṣamāññana krentauna tsmoyeṃtär-necmelne saṃsārne sportomane mālle tākoymtikṣnendri
b3n8 tākoym ce krent yāmorsa maitreyempa śilyme eṣe tākoymtarya piṭakänta piṅkemane tāko-
b4-ymn9n10n11se ce amok aklyiyenträ po paññäkte tākoyeṃ : • ॥ ॥ cesäs amokäs toṅkitsā el wäs


a4... || This twelfth art has been finished writing. || ||
b1These arts Dharmacandra has ordered to write. May through [his] wish for the Buddha worth the dangers of this birth disappear for him!
b2May the monastic virtues grow for him! May I in [this] birth, in this turning saṃsāra, no longer be mālle, may I have sharp senses!
b3May I through this good deed come together with Maitreya! May I be writing the three piṭakas!
b4Who may learn this art, may they all become Buddhas! || || These arts Toṅkitsā has given as a gift.



The leaf is almost complete; only a small strip at the right is lost. The recto contains the end of the dvādaśākṣarī including the closing formula in Tocharian A; the fact that the leaf number is found on the recto confirms that this was the last leaf of the manuscript. The verso is filled with pious wishes in another hand, in Tocharian B, but with many mistakes. The verso ends with a phrase in Tocharian A again, in yet another hand. As THT 1128 is leaf number 9, this should be leaf number 11. A leaf number seems to be found in the left margin of the recto, but it is illegible.

Philological commentary

piṅkemane tākoym: this construction is peculiar. If not a calque, it might simply be a mistake.
n1: With || säs śäkwepint amok piktsi papyutäk • || the dvādaśākṣarī text ends. śäkwepint 'twelfth' may refer to the text type of the dvādaśākṣarī instead of the actual number of sections, since this text seems to have only 6 sections. Otherwise, the twelve sections may have been subdivided into two larger sections of each 6 subsections.
n2säs śäkwepint amok piktsi papyutäk: The phrase literally means 'This twelve art has come about [through/ in] writing' (cf. Schmidt 1974: 494, who translates "Das Schreiben dieser zwölften [Schreib]kunst ist beendet." [wtl. "Diese zwölfte Kunst ist zustande gekommen, geschrieben zu werden.").
n3|| ||: After these two double daṇḍas, the rest of the line is empty.
n4paññäktaññe: for expected paññäktäññe, pañäktäññe.
n5ce amokänta: if ce modifies amokänta, the correct form would have been toṃ or toyna. Therefore, Sieg and Siegling 1953: 387 proposes to read ce as kuce in the sense 'because'. However, a demonstrative would seem to be expected and in view of all the mistakes in this text it may well have been meant to be used so.
n6camel\ṣṣena: the remarkable l\ in the middle of this word may be due to a form cmeläṣṣana (Sieg and Siegling 1953: 387); the expected form is cmelṣana.
n7mālle: Adams 2013a: 483 suggests 'dull'.
n8śilyme: a writing error for śmilye, in turn probably somehow a late form of vn śmalñe 'coming'. In any case, the correct order would be maitreyempa eṣe śilyme tākoym, cf. PK AS 4A b3 aknātsaimpa ṣe śmalyñe mā ñī tākoī 'may there be no coming together with a fool for me!'. Note in addition the expected 3sg. verb in the latter example, as against the peculiar 1sg. in our text.
n9paññäkte: for paññäkti, pañäkti.
n10se: for kuse.
n11: • ||: Sieg and Siegling 1953: 387 read : 1 ||, but the preceding lines are hardly metrical. If we base ourselves on the punctuation marks and leave out the first sentence, which is 47 syllables, the remaining four lines are 14, 20, 12 and 15 syllables respectively. Even if these were meant to imitate a 4-line poem, they cannot be analysed as such.

Alternative linguistic/paleographic classifications

Peyrot 2008CL
Tamai 2011C1
Tamai 2011C14


Online access

IDP: THT 605; TITUS: THT 605


Sieg and Siegling 1953: 387; Sieg and Siegling 1921


Hackstein 1995: b1 (133); Krause 1952: b4 (129); TEB II: b4 (61); Peyrot 2013b: b4 (706); Schmidt 1974: a4 (494 and n.2), b1 b2 (113f, 116); Sieg and Siegling 1921: b4; Thomas 1954: b1 (731); Thomas 1957: b1 b2 (225), b4 (154); Thomas 1969b: b1 (54); Thomas 1997: b4 (104)


Adams 2013a

Adams, Douglas Q. 2013a. A dictionary of Tocharian B. Revised and greatly enlarged. 2<span class="sup">nd</span>. 2 vols. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.

Hackstein 1995

Hackstein, Olav. 1995. Untersuchungen zu den sigmatischen Präsensstammbildungen des Tocharischen. HS Erg.-Heft 38. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d. http://idp.bl.uk.

Krause 1952

Krause, Wolfgang. 1952. Westtocharische Grammatik, Band I. Das Verbum. Heidelberg: Winter.

Peyrot 2008

Peyrot, Michaël. 2008. Variation and change in Tocharian B. Vol. 15. Leiden Studies in Indo-European. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.

Peyrot 2013b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013b. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD, Universität Göttingen.

Sieg and Siegling 1921

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1921. Tocharische Sprachreste, I. Band. Die Texte. A. Transcription. Berlin/Leipzig: de Gruyter.

Sieg and Siegling 1953

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1953. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, Heft 2. Fragmente Nr. 71-633. Edited by Werner Thomas. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Tamai 2011

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2011. Paläographische Untersuchungen zum B-Tocharischen. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 138. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen.


Thomas, Werner, and Wolfgang Krause. 1964. Tocharisches Elementarbuch, Band II. Texte und Glossar. Heidelberg: Winter.

Thomas 1954

Thomas, Werner. 1954. “Die Infinitive im Tocharischen.” In Asiatica. Festschrift Friedrich Weller. Zum 65. Geburtstag, gewidmet von seinen Freunden, Kollegen und Schülern, edited by Johannes Schubert and Ulrich Schneider, 701–64. Leipzig: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1957

Thomas, Werner. 1957. Der Gebrauch der Vergangenheitstempora im Tocharischen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1969b

Thomas, Werner. 1969b. “Toch. B pañäkti Gen. Sg.?” Sprache 15: 53–58.

Thomas 1997

Thomas, Werner. 1997. Interpretationsprobleme im Tocharischen. Unflektiertes A puk, B po “ganz, all, jeder”. Vol. 3. SbWGF, XXXV. Stuttgart: Steiner.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.” http://titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/texte/tocharic/thtframe.htm.