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THT 16

Known as:THT 16; B 16; B 16a; B 16b; Bleistiftnummer 3328
Cite this page as:Hannes A. Fellner. "THT 16". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-tht16 (accessed 22 May 2024).

Edition

Editor:Hannes A. Fellner

Provenience

Main find spot:Shorchuk
Expedition code:T III Š 101
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection

Language and Script

Language:TB
Linguistic stage:classical
Script:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānālaṅkāra
Passage:Book 8 (Vācāvarga), strophes 20b-28.
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine
Verse/Prose:verse
Meter:M25

Object

Manuscript:Udānālaṅkāra A
Preceding fragment:THT 15
Material: ink on paper
Form:Poṭhī
Number of lines:8

Images

Transliteration

(continues from THT 15)

a1/// ṣmy[e] nā ki kre n[ta]ṃ śā mna ś[m]ā tu wa lke tswe ta rnta /// /// ·[ñ]· – [rka] rmeṃ – – –
a2/// [ṅ]ka mpe ṣe l· nā ki ṣṣe ta rka rmeṃ 20 ṣu kkau ntsa po ///
a3/// yta ri nne : we k·[e] pa cca pa pi śtoṃ ślo ka nma pu dñä kt· /// /// [w]· [ke] [e] mp[r]eṃ ne mc·[¯] [¯k] ñe ///
a4/// tā ka tte tne we ṣṣe ñca wno lme nrai ne y[a] nno kuse /// /// k[ca] me ln[e] – [n]e [ś]·e ·ai –
a5/// [ño] s̝a ai na [k]· – – – mni : e ṅwe ntse ta ne te te mo ṣe pi pe re tko /// /// ma ne [nts]e ce – – – –
a6/// [w] (–) o lmeṃ ā ltsi yo lo meṃ 20 2 kuse no na kṣa lye wno lme pa llā tra ce nra [na] kṣta rkuse pa /// /// ¯k mā ra me¯ – – – – –
a7/// la [n]e [:] [to] tkā yä rm·e ··e ka re¯ ¯p wno lme ntse kuse ma ṅke tra pr«a» ·e – – – – ñai ///
a8/// ni ra – – – – (–) ryā ka [ṣka]¯ ¯s pi śtai sā ///
b1/// [t]ko – – – – – – sti t[ā¯] [¯u] śtwa rā tsa na ///
b2/// s· [pa] lṣi ka rsa [m]· ce¯ ¯u pyo¯ ¯p tī rthe ṣṣai we rtsyai ne [:] – – – – śts· ///
b3/// [¯ts] t[s]a ṅka śrā va sti ne pā kau ntsa nte tu yā mtsi : tsa ṅkā me we ñye ka ll· ntse ṣa rmtsa /// /// [a] llo kno [l]· – – – –
b4/// ñ[e] [sā]¯ ¯u – – – ri ṣai wñā rā lyai ko we sno tā u : ka wa¯ ¯[m] ṣa ñṣa r (–) /// /// [ts]r[e] [rme] ne : klyau – – – –
b5/// [¯cä] ma sa lā nte twā kṣa au rtse sa : ña ṣṣa po ti /// /// 20 6 yā t[ka] [m]e wa – ·[y]u
b6/// kke ññeṃ tso tsa (–) ya rke po yśi ntse : tu ypa rwe [w]e /// /// ·[ā] ka [tt]e w[ai] ke tne we s̝s̝aṃ wa
b7/// ntpi nrai ne ta[n]ma ske ntra : pa rwe ṣṣe ślo kne ce ye¯ ¯s ā /// /// [n]e m[c]e [kta] nma [stra]
b8/// ṣe mā tri ke ktse ñmeṃ : ce wsa ka rsnā tra lyka ś[k]e – e ṣa· – /// /// [pā] [ta] [rmā] [ta] – – –

Transcription

(continues from THT 15)

20b10σ /// ; (ne)ṣmye nāki ; krentäṃ śāmnaś ; tu walke ; tswetär nta (:)
20c/// 24σ /// ·ñ· (:)
20d(tä)rkarmeṃ – – – a2n3n4 /// ; (sā)ṅkämp= eṣe ; l(aṃ) nākiṣṣe ; tärkarmeṃ 20
21bṣuk kauntsa po ; /// 21σ a3n5n6 /// ; ytarinne :
21cwek(ts)e päccapa ; piś toṃ ślokanma ; pudñäkt(entse) ; /// 11σ
21d10σ /// ; w(ai)ke empreṃ ; nemc(e)k ñe… /// a4n7n8 /// (20-1)
22a(a)tākatte tne ; weṣṣeñca wnolme ; nraine yan no ; kuse /// 10σ
22b /// ; (alye)k camelne ; (e)neś(l)e (t)ai ; (we)a5(we)ñoṣän9n10 ; ainak(e-ykne) ; (tai) (śā)mni :
22deṅwentse tane ; tetemoṣepi ; peret ko(yne) ; (tänmasträ) (no) ; (cewsa) (ṣañ) (āñm) ; (kärnātär) (:) /// /// ; (weske)manentse ; ce (wace) (ślok) ; (we)a6(ña)n11n12 (poyśi) ; w(n)olmeṃ āltsi ; yolomeṃ 20-2
23akuse no nakṣalye ; wnolme pällāträ ; cen ra nakṣtär ; kuse pä(llālyi) ; ///
23b10σ /// ; (sa)k rame(r) ; – – – – ; a7n13n14n15 /// ; (cme)lane :
23ctotkā-yärm (s)e (tn)e ; karep wnolmentse ; kuse mäṅketrä ; pra·e – – ; – – ñai… ///
23d21σ a8n16
24a/// (känte-yätsenma) ; nira(rbudänta) ; (tä)ryāka ṣkas ; piś taisā(k) ; ///
24b17σ b1n17
24d /// …tko – – – – ; – – (śrāva)sti u ; śtwarātsana ; /// 25σ
25a b2n18n19 /// ; (klaut)s(a-)pälṣi ; karsa«r»-m(e) ceu ; pyop tīrtheṣṣai ; wertsyaine :
25b– – – – śts· ; /// 20σ
25c b3n20 /// …ts tsaṅka ; śrāvastine ; pāk= auntsante ; tu yāmtsi :
25dtsäṅkā-me weñye ; käll(au)ntse ṣarmtsa ; /// 15σ
26a/// allok no – – – – b4n21 /// …ñe u (no) ; (sunda)ri ṣai ; wñār= ālyaiko ; wes no tāu :
26bkawam ṣañ ṣar(sa) ; /// 17σ /// ; tsrermene :
26cklyau(ṣa) (sū) (śaumo) ; b5n22n23 ; (mas=) (āmācimśco) ; (po) (tw) (akṣā-ne) ; (amā)c masa ; lānte tw ākṣa ; aurtsesa :
26dñaṣṣa po ti(rtheṃ) ; (walo) /// 11σ /// ; (wñāre) (empreṃ) ; (lāntäśco) 20-6
27ayātka-me wa(lo) ; (l)yub6(tsi)n24n25 (po) (ypoymeṃ) ; (wīka) (tarkär) ; (śa)kkeññeṃtso ; tsa(ma) yarke ; poyśintse :
27btu yparwe we(ña) ; (piś) (toṃ) (ślokanma) ; (entseṣṣeṃts) (rsercentse) ; (palsko) (kantwa) ; (prāmässiś) (:)
27c(ṣe) (at)ākatte ; waike tne weṣṣäṃ ; wab7(te)n26n27 (yāmṣäṃ) ; (yolaiṃ) (yāmor) ; (ā)ntpi nraine ; tÄnmaskenträ :
27dpärweṣṣe ślokne ; ce yes ā(rth) (pkarsas) ; (ṣe) (waikesa) ; (nraine) (tÄnmastär) ; (wate) (ṣañ) (tri);(śalñesa) (20-7)
28a(śaumo) (tetemu) ; nemcek tänmasträ b8n28n29 ; (käṃtwāṣe) (ceu) ; (peretämpa) ; (e)ṣe mātri ; kektseñmeṃ :
28bcewsa kärsnāträ ; lykaśke (tn)e ṣa(ñ) (añm) ; /// 12σ /// (śamñana) (:)
(pernent) (wnolmene) pātär mātä(r) (ṣpä) (rerinormeṃ)

Translation

(continues from THT 15)

a1[20b] .... [20c]
a1... slander and blame to good men this does not stick for long.
a1+From the cloud ... ... (he will), together with the community, ermerge from the cloud of blame.
a2[20d]
a2+For seven days all ... on all paths loudly proclaim the five strophes (of the) Buddha ...
a3... lie [as] truth certainly ...
a4... [21d],
a4... then the being speaking an unfounded thing here goes to hell. Also who ...
a4+... in the (other) birth ... (both are indeed named the same:
a5... two people of low kind. For in the mouth) of the man here born an axe (develops with which he cuts into his own flesh) when he says [slander].
a5+(This second strophe spoke the Omniscient) to keep the being away from evil:
a6[22d]
a6For who praises a reprehensible being, but blames those that are (praiseworthy) ... not suddenly ... in [the] (births).
a7Only [of] minor [relevance is] here the injury of a being, who loses (...)
a8([A] hundred thousand) and thirty-six Nirar(budas) and also five (Arbudas) [in the hells] ...
b1... (the city Śrāva)stī fourfold ...
b2... (pricking up our ears), let us know of them, enter the assembly of the Tīrthas ...
b3[25d]
b3... he arose. In Śrāvastī they began to take part in it. Among them the talk arose: For the sake of profit ... Also another one ...
b4... this was (indeed Sunda)rī. Others said: We, however, killed her (with) [our] own hand ... ... (and threw her ?) into the moat. ([This] the man) heard,
b5[26d]
b5(he went to the minister [and]) (reported all to him. The minister went and reported this) to the king in [its] breadth. (The king) summoned all Tīrthas ... (they told the truth to the king).
b5+(The king) ordered (to ban them from the whole country.
b6It disappeared) (the cloud above the Śākya-sons, [and]) reverence for the Omniscient increased. Concerning this (he proclaimed the five strophes (before) the envious [ones] and the spiteful [ones], to restrain [their] mind and tongue).
b6+The one here speaks a lie without reason, (the second does a bad deed.
b7[27d]
b7Both) are [re]born in hell. In the first strophe you shall recognize this meaning: (The first by his lie is [re]born in hell, the second by his erring.
b7+A human) is certainly born (together) (with such a tongue-axe, born from the) mother’s body.
b8With it he cuts off fine (there himself)... (With a dignified being that, having left) mother [and] father ...

Other

a1... üble Nachrede [und] Tadel, [aber] aber an guten Menschen haftet das eben nicht lange. (Schmidt 1974: 283)
a6+Wer nämlich ein tadelnswertes Wesen lobt, hingegen diejenigen tadelt, welche (lobenswert) [sind] ... (der findet) [so] bald nicht (Glück) in [seinen] Geburten. (Schmidt 1974: 171-2)
a7Nur gering [ist] hier dieser Verlust eines Wesens, das im Würfelspiel(?) verliert. (Schmidt 1974: 109)
b5(Der König) beschied alle Tī(rthas) zu sich, ... sie sagten dem König die Wahrheit. (Schmidt 1974: 153)
b6+(Der eine) spricht hier (un)begründet eine Lüge aus, der zwei(te tut böse Tat.) Beide werden in der Hölle [wieder-]geboren: (Schmidt 1974: 106)
b7+(Der geborene Mensch) wird bestimmt zusammen mit solcher Zungenaxt aus dem Leibe der Mutter geboren. Durch sie zerstückelt er (hier) sich (selbst). (Schmidt 1974: 313)

Commentary

Parallel texts

Uv 8.1-8.5, THT 18

Philological commentary

Since the writing is severely attrited now the transliteration and transcription is based on Sieg and Siegling 1983: 43f.
This leaf immediately follows THT 15 and THT 18 and is the next but one after THT 17. It includes strophes 20b-28 and THT 18 includes strophes 26-32, both of the Vācāvarga (VIII) in a 4x25 syllable–metre (rhythm 5/5/8/7). Thus both leaves are identical for strophes 26-28. The great gaps in strophe 20 – from the second line the beginning (11 syllables) is missing as is the entire line 3 – do not allow us to clearly see the connection to the following. However, verse Uv VIII 1, quoted in a4, is identical to Dhp 302, and the commentary to Dhp tells the story of the murder of the nun Sundarī, which was passed off by the Tīrthas as Buddha’s concubine and which they later had murdered in order to blame the killing on the Buddha and his community. Due to the king’s intervention, however, the real murderers are discovered and the Tīrthas are punished, while the reverence for the Buddha is even growing. For a translation and further references cf. Burlingame 1921, III: 189ff. The fact that also in our version this story is also associated with Uv VIII 1 is attested to by strophes 25ff., which apparently are dealing with the solving of the crime. The name Sundarī, too, seems to be preserved in the fragment.
n2(tä)rkarmeṃ amended according to Sieg and Siegling 1949: I, 28 fn. 3.
n4l(aṃ) amended according to Sieg and Siegling 1949: I, 28 fn. 5.
n6pudñäkt(entse) amended according to Sieg and Siegling 1949: II, 26 fn. 10.
n8(alye)k supplemented according to Sieg and Siegling 1949: I, 28 fn. 12; (e)neś(l)e (t)ai (wewe)ñoṣä amended and corrected according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 168.
n10ainak(e-ykne tai śā)mni amended and supplemented according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 168f.; ko(yne tänmasträ no) supplemented according to Sieg and Siegling 1949: II, 27 fn. 4.; (cewsa ṣañ āñm kärnātär :) supplemented based on THT 18 a5; (weske)manentse supplemented by Sieg and Siegling 1949: II, 27 fn. 5; wace ślok weña supplemented according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 169.
n12(poyśi) supplemented according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 169; pä(llālyi) supplemented according to Sieg and Siegling 1949: I, 28 fn. 17; (sa)k supplemented according to Sieg and Siegling 1949: II, 27 fn. 7.
n14The reading pra corrected by deletion of the e-sign according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 43 fn. 21.
n15(cme)lane supplemented according to Sieg and Siegling 1949: I, 28 fn. 19.
n16(känte-yätsenma) nir(arbudänta) supplemented and corrected according to Sieg and Siegling 1949: II, 27 fn. 9; taisā(k) amended according to Hackstein et al. 2014: 74f.
n17(śrāva)sti supplemented according to Sieg and Siegling 1949: I, 28 fn. 26.
n19(klaut)s(a) supplemented according to Sieg and Siegling 1949: II, 28 fn. 1; karsa(r)-m(e) amended according to Sieg and Siegling 1949: II, 28 fn. 2.
n21(no sunda)ri supplemented according to Sieg and Siegling 1949: II, 28 fn. 4; klyau(ṣa sū śaumo) supplemented based on THT 18 a1.
n22The end of this line is transliterated as /// 26 yātkame wa – ·yn by Sieg and Siegling 1949: I, 29, but restored after THT 18 as 26 yātkame walo lyutsi. In fact, ·yn is wrong. The correct reading is ·yu (in view of the similary of u and n in the Latin script, this is probably a printing error).
n23(mas= āmācimśco po tw akṣāne amā)c supplemented based on THT 18 a1; ti(rtheṃ walo) supplemented according to Sieg and Siegling 1949: II, 28 fn. 7; (wñāre empreṃ lāntäśco) and wa(lo l)yu(tsi) supplemented based on THT 18 a2.
n25(po ypoymeṃ wīka tarkär śa)kkeññeṃtso tsa(ma) supplemented based on THT 18 a2; we(ña piś toṃ ślokanma entseṣṣeṃts rsercentse ; palsko kantwa prāmässiś : ṣe at)ākatte supplemented based on THT 18 a2 and a3; wa(te) supplemented based on THT 18 a3.
n27(yāmṣäṃ yolaiṃ yāmor ā)ntpi and ā(rth pkarsas ṣe waikesa nraine tänmastär wate ṣañ triśalñesa 27 śaumo tetemu) supplemented according to THT 18 a3.
n29(käṃtwāṣe ceu peretämpa ; e)ṣe supplemented based on THT 18 a4; (tn)e ṣa(ñ añm) (śamñana : pernent wnolmene) supplemented based on THT 18 a5; mātä(r ṣpä rerinormeṃ) supplemented according to Sieg and Siegling 1949: II, 29 fn. 1.

Remarks

Two fragments of a leaf of Manuscript A, one being the severely damaged and incomplete rest of the left side, the other a small remnant of the right bottom corner, equally badly damaged with the writing attrited.

Linguistic commentary

n1neṣmye for neṣamye.
n3nākiṣṣe for nakiṣṣe; ṣuk for ṣukt.
n5ytarinne for ytārine.
n7tne for tane.
n9eṅwentse for eṅkwentse
n11sak for sakw.
n13tne for tane.
n18ceu for cau.
n20weñye for weñiye.
n24tne for tane; śakkeññeṃtso for śakkeññeṃts.
n26āntpi for antapi.
n28tne for tane; cewsa for causa.

Alternative linguistic/paleographic classifications

Tamai 2011C5
Tamai 2011C14

References

Online access

IDP: THT 16a, THT 16b; TITUS: THT 16

Edition

Sieg and Siegling 1949: I, 27-29; Sieg and Siegling 1983: 42-44 notes 167-170; Hackstein et al. 2014: 65-82

Translations

Carling 2000: a1 (77, 230), a4 (143, 243), a5 (204), a6 a7 (244), b7 (142); Hackstein 1995: a6 (65, 214), b2 (136), b4 (53); Hackstein et al. 2014: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 a8 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8 (65-82); Krause 1952: a6 (38), b2 (32); Meunier 2013: b3 (130-131, 150), b6 (163); Peyrot 2013b: a7 (712); Schmidt 1974: a1 (283), a1 a2 (153), a4 a5 (313f), a6 (19 n.4), a6 a7 (171f), a6 a7 (171-2), a7 (109), b5 (153), b6 b7 (106), b7 b8 (313); Sieg and Siegling 1949: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 a8 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8 (II, 26-28); Thomas 1952: a6 (27); Thomas 1954: a5 a6 (751), a6 (721), b5 (732), b6 (752); Thomas 1957: b3 (113), b4 (113, 184), b6=B18a2 (166); Thomas 1967b: a6 (22), a6 (26); Thomas 1979b: a4 (27), a5 (16), a7 (30), b6 (32); Thomas 1983: a4 (23)

Bibliography

Burlingame 1921

Burlingame, Eugene W. 1921. Buddhist legends. Translated from the original Pali text of the Dhammapada commentary. Vol. I: Introduction; Synopses; Translation of Books 1 and 2; Vol. II: Translation of Books 3 to 12; Vol. III: Translation of Books 13 to 26. The Harvard Oriental Studies 28-30. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd. 2000. Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

Hackstein 1995

Hackstein, Olav. 1995. Untersuchungen zu den sigmatischen Präsensstammbildungen des Tocharischen. HS Erg.-Heft 38. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Hackstein et al. 2014

Hackstein, Olav, Hiromi Habata, and Christoph Bross. 2014. “Tocharische Texte zur Buddhalegende I: Die Geschichte von der Nonne Sundarī B15–18.” Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 68: 31–99.

IDP

“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d. http://idp.bl.uk.

Krause 1952

Krause, Wolfgang. 1952. Westtocharische Grammatik, Band I. Das Verbum. Heidelberg: Winter.

Meunier 2013

Meunier, Fanny. 2013. “Typologie des locutions en yām- du tokharien.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 14: 123–85.

Peyrot 2013b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013b. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” {PhD}, Universität Göttingen.

Sieg and Siegling 1949

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1949. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, Heft 1. Die Udānālaṅkāra-Fragmente. Text, übersetzung und Glossar. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Sieg and Siegling 1983

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1983. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B. Teil I: Die Texte. Band 1. Fragmente Nr. 1-116 der Berliner Sammlung. Edited by Werner Thomas. Neubearbeitet und mit einem Kommentar nebst Register versehen v. Werner Thomas. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Tamai 2011

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2011. Paläographische Untersuchungen zum B-Tocharischen. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 138. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen.

Thomas 1952

Thomas, Werner. 1952. Die tocharischen Verbaladjektive auf -l. Deutsche Akad. Der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Institut für Orientforschung 9. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Thomas 1954

Thomas, Werner. 1954. “Die Infinitive im Tocharischen.” In Asiatica. Festschrift Friedrich Weller. Zum 65. Geburtstag, gewidmet von seinen Freunden, Kollegen und Schülern, edited by Johannes Schubert and Ulrich Schneider, 701–64. Leipzig: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1957

Thomas, Werner. 1957. Der Gebrauch der Vergangenheitstempora im Tocharischen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1967b

Thomas, Werner. 1967b. “Besteht ein formaler Unterschied zwischen N. Und Obl. Sg. M. Bei den wtoch. Verbaladjektiven?” Die Sprache 13: 20–30.

Thomas 1979b

Thomas, Werner. 1979b. Formale Besonderheiten in metrischen Texten des Tocharischen: Zur Verteilung von B tane/tne “hier” und B ñake/ñke “jetzt”. Abhandlungen d. Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 15. Mainz: Verlag d. Akad. d. Wissenschaften und d. Literatur.

Thomas 1983

Thomas, Werner. 1983. Der tocharische Obliquus im Sinne eines Akkusativs der Richtung. Abhandlungen d. Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 6. Mainz: Verlag d. Akad. d. Wissenschaften und d. Literatur.

TITUS

Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.” http://titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/texte/tocharic/thtframe.htm.