• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

THT 1231

Known as:THT 1231; Prelim. No. 48
Cite this page as:Svetlana Burlak; Michaël Peyrot. "THT 1231". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 08 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Svetlana Burlak; Michaël Peyrot


Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Buddhastotra


Material: ink on paper
Number of lines:5


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


a1/// ś· mñe ṣṣe – ///
a2/// – (–) – ś[ai] ṣṣe ne ī ke – ///
a3/// – kk[e] nta śai ṣṣe ntse ma rsa rṣṣa ñca la kle nta [śl]e ///
a4/// ta nma ṣṣe ñca po yśī nta ā we mā ce rśai ṣṣe ntse kre ///
b1/// ·ñ· po nta kre ntau na¯ ¯ts yo lai ññe nta tra ṅko nta cā ///
b2/// 6 me ska rai twe śi la ṣṣi ka lṣa mñe ṣṣa – – ///
b3/// [sa] 80 7 nau mye nta [ṣ](·)· ///
b4/// yo ktsi ci ñca ·e ///
b5/// – ///


a1 n1 /// (ai)ś(a)mñeṣṣe – ///
a2 /// – – – śaiṣṣene īke – ///
a3 n2n3 /// – kkenta śaiṣṣentse marsärṣṣañca läklenta śle ///
a4 n4n5n6 /// tanmäṣṣeñca poyśīnta āwe mācer śaiṣṣentse kre ///
b1 /// ·ñ· ponta krentaunats yolaiññenta träṅkonta cā ///
b2 n7 /// (80-)6 meska raitwe śilaṣṣi kälṣamñeṣṣa – – ///
b3 /// sa 80-7 naumyentaṣ(ṣ)· ///
b4 n8 /// (śwātsi) yoktsi ciñca(r)e ///
b5 /// – ///


a1 ... of wisdom ...
a2 ... in the world ... a place ...
a3 ... the ... of the world; one who makes forget the sorrows; with ...
a4 ... one who begets omniscient [Buddhas]; the grandfather [and] mother of the world; ... the good ...
b1 ... of all virtues; evils [and] offences ...
b2 ...(8)6 Joint [and] connection of moral behaviour; ... of endurance ...
b3 ... 87 ... of the jewels ...
b4 ... (food) [and] drink ... lovely ...
b5 ...


Philological commentary

Striking is the lack of any finite verb form in the fragment: as far as can be established with the fragmentary portions preserved, the text consists of a series of nominal phrases consisting of a head noun and an adjective, genitive, locative, object, etc. In style it thus reminds of for instance the Buddhastotra with epithets in alphabetical order edited by Schlingloff 1955: 82-83. Indeed, this fragment seems to be part of a Buddhastotra as well, but so far no system in the sequence of the epithets can be found. The asignment of recto and verso is uncertain.
Even though pāda-marking punctuation seems to be lacking completely, the whole text is probably metrical, witness the strophe numbers b2 (8)6 and b3 87. The metre is most probably 4 x 7¦7, in view of the fact that in all lines sequences of 4 and 3 syllables alternate: a1: (ai)ś(a)mñeṣṣe + 3 syllables a2: 4 syllables + śaiṣṣene a3: 2 syllables + kkenta śaiṣṣentse a3: marsärṣṣañca läklenta a4: tanmäṣṣeñca poyśīnta a4: āwe mācer śaiṣṣentse b1: 1 syllable + ·ñ· ponta krentaunats b1: yolaiññenta träṅkonta b2: meska raitwe śilaṣṣi b2: kälṣamñeṣṣa + 3 syllables b3: naumyentaṣ(ṣ)· + 3 syllables b4: 2 syllables + yoktsi ciñca(r)e The only places where pāda-marking punctuation might be found are b1 krentaunats\, if the virāma dot replaces the pāda-final dot; and a4 śaiṣṣentse, which has a remarkable extra stroke on top of the last akṣara. If the metre is indeed 4 x 7¦7, the length of one line was approximately 50 syllables (4 x 14 = 56 syllables from 86 to 87; but since 87 stands about 7 akṣaras right of 86, the line length is 56 – 7 = 49).
n1 (ai)ś(a)mñeṣṣe: possibly followed by sārathiṃ 'charioteer', cf. PK AS 5B a5 = THT 313 a5.
n2 /// – kk[e]nta: possibly the e-vowel is actually r. A reading to consider would be [y](ä)[r]kk(e)nta.
n3 marsarṣṣañca: the second r is miswritten for e; read marsaṣṣeñca (see Malzahn 2010b: 758; Peyrot 2013c: 787.
n4 : cf. Thomas 1988b: 161.
n5 āwe: the translation 'grandfather' of Thomas 1988b: 161 is here provisionally followed, even though this definitely needs further confirmation.
n6 śaiṣṣentse: a stroke on top of the last akṣara is probably to be ignored.
n7 meska raitwe śilaṣṣi: This sequence is difficult to analyse. The easiest seems to take meska raitwe as a juxtaposed meske raitwe 'joint [and] connection'. However, the following śilaṣṣi can only be a, so that the two words meske raitwe together would be a plural, a construction not normally found in Tocharian (perhaps this is a calque on Sanskrit?). Not probable is an interpretation meska rai twe 'O joint, you!' with meska as a vocative, because then śilaṣṣi would be even more difficult (the regular vocative would be śilaṣṣu).
n8 yoktsi: there are traces under the first akṣara that cannot belong to it if this reading is correct.


Online access

IDP: THT 1231; TITUS: THT 1231


Tamai 2007a: №1231



“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Malzahn 2010b

Malzahn, Melanie. 2010b. The Tocharian verbal system. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Peyrot 2013c

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013c. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Schlingloff 1955

Schlingloff, Dieter. 1955. Buddhistische Stotras aus ostturkistanischen Sanskrittexten. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden 1. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Tamai 2007a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2007a. “A preliminary edition of unpublished texts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.” Thesaurus indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan collection.

Thomas 1988b

Thomas, Werner. 1988b. “Toch. B orotse-pacere ‘Großeltern’?” Historische Sprachforschung 101: 155–65.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”