Work in progress

THT 1118

Known as:THT 1118; KVāc 27
Cite this page as:Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés. "THT 1118". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 22 Apr. 2024).


Editor:Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection

Language and Script

Language:Skt.; TB
Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Karmavācanā
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Vinaya


Manuscript:THT 1102-1125
Preceding fragment:THT 1117
Following fragment:THT 1119
Material: ink on wood tablet
Size (h × w):5.6 × 29 cm
Number of lines:5


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project Berlin, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


(continues from THT 1117)

a1/// /// ṣñi [k]e kkauṃ lkā ta [rta] /// /// ma ne ywā rśka ññe saṃ wa ra ste • – – va ra ntse kuse
a2/// /// pai ntsa ksa rtsa [wa] /// /// mā no tre kne • tu mpa [t]a [s]e ma ne – – saṃ va rste sū
a3/// /// [k]· lau [n]e /// /// ·i ·ai snai krā ke /// /// ·e (–) ·[e] [o]
a4/// /// ·ksau ce sa saṃ va[¯] [¯r] – ///
b1/// /// s· a dh· m· ///
b2/// /// n· ca mta yā m[tsi] /// /// ·n· śp· ///
b3/// /// c[e] to ya[¯] – /// /// nt· ṣu¯ ¯kt ka rma dha· [t]· – – ·[m]· [y]· – – – i ka· ṣ· kl[au] –
b4/// /// – llā lle • te sa wa· ·ṃ /// /// ñyā sa e rṣa lle sta¯ ¯rc k· ttsi ce ta – – pe lai kne nta ñya
b5/// /// nt· wa kī tse no [w]· /// /// ñyā stā kaṃ [k]w[ä] lpe lle sū te ka· – [ṣ] – kā no te¯ ¯ś

(continues on THT 1119)


(continues from THT 1117)

a1 n1n2n3 /// /// ṣñikek kauṃ lkātär tä… /// /// (tase)mane ywārśkaññe saṃwarä ste • – (saṃ)varäntse kuse
a2 n4n5n6 /// /// paintsa ksartsa wa(t) /// /// no trekne • tumpa tasemane – – saṃvar ste
a3 n7 /// /// k· laune /// /// ·i ·ai snai krāke /// /// ·e – ·e o
a4 n8n9 /// /// (ā)ksau cesa saṃvar – ///
b1 n10 /// /// s· adh·m· ///
b2 n11n12 /// /// n· camtä yāmtsi /// /// ·n· śp· ///
b3 n13n14 /// /// ce toya(k) /// /// nt· ṣukt karmadha·t· – – ·m· y· – – – ikä(ṃ) ṣ(e) klau –
b4 n15n16n17 /// /// (kä)llālletesa wa(sa)ṃ(tpāt) /// /// ñyāsä erṣalle star-c k(ā)ttsi ce ta – – pelaiknenta ñya
b5 n18n19n20 /// /// nt· wakītse no w(äntare) /// /// ñyās tākaṃ kwälpelle te kä(lpā)ṣ(ṣäṃ) no teś

(continues on THT 1119)


(continues from THT 1117)

a1 (is covered(?)) [and] yet the sun is visible ...., (compara)able (to this) is the average [form of] self-discipline. What (then is the third form?) of (self-)discipline?
a2 (As [if]) in the evening(?) or in the morning(?) (there is(?) a half-light(?)), but not ...., comparable to this is the (lowest) [form of] self-discipline. This
a3 (self-discipline(?)) .... unstained ....
a4 (Now?) I will (proclaim to you) whereby self-discipline (may be obtained).
a5 ....
b1 ....
b2 ....
b3 ... Since(?) these .... seven (salutary) acts(?) [karmapathas(?)] .... in 21 wa(ys)
b4 may be .... obtained, therefore you shall raise desire (for the [beneficial] effects(?) of) ordi(nation). Why so? Because he(re these(?)) dharmas ...
b5 ... , however, (are(?)) an excellent t(hing. Who[ever]) has the wish (for this) [and] the desire, he (will) obt(ain) this. But why shall one

(continues on THT 1119)


Philological commentary

The supplementation and commentaries follow Schmidt 1986: 25-26, 141.
n2 At the beginning of this line there is a gap of about 5 akṣaras. The [k·] may also be a [t·] or a [n·]. Between and (tase)mane about 8 akṣaras are missing.
n3 The cross above ywarśkāññe does not seem to be of any significance, since the akṣaras added below the line were apparently deleted later.
n6 About 5-6 akṣaras are missing at the beginning of this line. Between wa and mā no about 6 akṣaras are missing.
n7 About 5 akṣaras are missing at the beginning of this line. Between laune (separation into segments uncertain) and ·i·ai there is a gap of about 7, after krāke there is one of about 8 akṣaras.
n9 At the beginning of this line there is a gap of about 5 akṣaras. The text breaks off after this line. The rest of the leaf is blank.
n10 At the beginning of this line about 7 akṣaras are missing. This first line seems to have contained a text in Sanskrit. Above and below this line a rather inexpert hand has drawn lines, which may have been intended as a frame for the text. To the end of this line about 22 akṣaras are missing.
n12 About 5 akṣaras are missing at the beginning of this line, and after yāmtsi there is a gap of about 9. To the end of this line about 13 akṣaras are missing. camtä may be a scribal error for campät.
n14 At the beginning of this line there is a gap of about 5 akṣaras, and after toya(k) about 6 are missing. Beneath the gap between [·m· y·] and ikäṃ and in a somewhat smaller script it says k[n]al[i].
n17 About 4 akṣaras are missing at the beginning of this line. Before ñyāsä the gap contains about 7 akṣaras.
n20 About 5 akṣaras are missing at the beginning of this line, before ñyās there is a gap of about 8.


According to Schmidt 1986: iv-v this ms. comes either from Qizil or from Tumšuq.
From this leaf 3 fragments are preserved: one from the left half of the leaf around the string hole, about 4 cm wide; one from the centre of the leaf, top margin, about 8 cm wide and containing remnants of 4 lines; and the top right corner, 3.5 cm wide and containing the remnants of 3 lines. The leaf number is not preserved.
The original ms. was 29 cm wide and 5.6 cm high, with the string hole 6.5 cm from the left margin. It was written by at least three hands: scribe 1, a beautiful, delicate script, from leaf 1 to 11 a1; scribe 2, distinguished by a number of orthographical idiosyncrasies/errors, from leaf 11 a1 to and including 19; scribe 3 from leaf 20 to end. The final leaves A and B THT 1123 and THT 1124 may have been written either by scribe 2 or a fourth hand. Cf. Schmidt 1986: v, 2, 5
This leaf is in hand 3.

Linguistic commentary

n1 ywārśkaññe for ywārśkāññe; saṃwarä for saṃvar.
n4 paintsa prob. ‘in the evening (?)’; ksartsa prob. ‘in the morning (?)’, cf. TA ksär.
n5 There is no certain identification of trekne by its form (possibly a Loc.) alone. Possibly (but not likely) to be corrected to trekte ‘big’ or connected to tärrek ‘blind’.
n8 cesa for kucesa.
n11 yāmtsi sic! and hardly to be read as yāmtsī The last word in this line may perhaps be restored to read śp(ālmeṃ).
n13 ṣukt karmadha[·t·] is unclear. It is not clear either if the phrase can be corrected and supplemented to ṣukt karma(pa)tä(n)[t](a), since Buddhist literature usually mentions ten karmapathas (‘ways of conduct’). karmadha[·t·]: °dha[kt·] is a possibility, but perhaps one should only read °dha[t·]? The last word in this line must be supplemented to a plural form of klautke.
n15 ñyāsä for ñyās.
n16 wasaṃtpāt: supplement thus or to a adjectival derivation of it.
n18 wakītse for wakitse; kwälpelle for kwälypelle.
n19 The supplementation to kälpāṣṣäm ‘will obtain’ is prompted by the still visible remains. On the use of the present tense to express future events see TEB I: §304,1.


Online access

IDP: THT 1118; TITUS: THT 1118


Tamai 2014: 385-386; Tamai 2007a: №1118; Schmidt 1986: 25-26, 58-59


Schmidt 1986: a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 (96-97); Tamai 2014: a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 (385-386)



“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Schmidt 1986

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1986. “Fragmente eines buddhistischen Ordinationsrituals in westtocharischer Sprache. Aus der Schule der Sarvāstivādins. Text, Übersetzung, Anmerkungen und Indizes.” {Habilitation}.

Tamai 2007a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2007a. “A preliminary edition of unpublished texts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.” Thesaurus indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan collection.

Tamai 2014

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2014. “The Tocharian Karmavācanā.” Annual Report of the International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology (ARIRIAB) at Soka University for the Academic Year 2013 17: 365–94.


Krause, Wolfgang, and Werner Thomas. 1960. Tocharisches Elementarbuch. Band I. Grammatik. Heidelberg: Winter.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”