• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.

Work in progress

SI B 120(1)

Known as:SI B 120(1); U 23
Cite this page as:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn. "SI B 120(1)". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 26 Feb. 2024).


Editor:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:IOM (St. Petersburg)

Language and Script

Language:TB; Sanskrit
Linguistic stage:archaic

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānavarga
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine


Leaf number:///
Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):8.1 × 9.2 cm
Number of lines:7


a1/// ·[y]· • sa dai va[ṃ] saṃ ka lpa ///
a2/// 30 2 sthū lā nvi ta rkā na tha [v] ///
a3/// vi ta rka ya nvai sa ta taṃ vi ta rkāṃ • pa lsk ///
a4/// na so vi ta rkā¯ ¯n • to nno ai śau mye pa ///
a5/// r· v[ā] ya • ri nä stra snai lyi pra [mā] ///
a6/// [mbho] pa maṃ kā ya mi maṃ vi di tvā • sa pū [le] ///
a7/// yma raṃ pa no ai śa mñe ṣṣe ye pe sa • j· t ///
b1/// ktā ke ktse ñka rso rmeṃ • na ga ro pa maṃ ci tta ma dhi ///
b2/// ya mi maṃ vi di tvā • ma ntra kkā¯ ¯k ṣi¯ ¯m me nā¯ ¯[k] [ly] ///
b3/// [c]· • rī ye me nā¯ ¯k pa lsk· e ṅku [s̝a] – • ///
b4/// ppa ṣṣī tra snai o stā ko¯ ¯i 30 7 [k]u ///
b5/// pa lsko e ṅku s̝a¯ ¯p • yu dhye ta mā raṃ pra [j]·ā ///
b6/// [ka] rso rmeṃ 30 8 saṃ bo dhya ṅge [ṣu] ///
b7/// • a nu pā dā na mā śri ///


a1 n1 /// ·y· •
sadaivaṃ saṃkalpa(hataḥ)
a2 /// 30-2
sthūlān vitarkān atha v(āpi)
vitarkayan vai satataṃ vitarkāṃ
• pälsk(emane) ///
a4 ///
(ma)naso vitarkān
ton no aiśaumye pä(lskontse) ///
a5 n3 ///
• rinästrä snai lyiprä mā ///
a6 ///
(ku)mbhopamaṃ kāyam imaṃ viditvā
sapūle ///
a7 n4 /// (wäto)y maräṃpa no aiśämñeṣṣe yepesa
b1 n5 /// (menā)k kektseñ kärsormeṃ
nagaropamaṃ cittam adhi(ṣṭhitaṃ) (ca)
(kā)yam imaṃ viditvā
• mäntrakkāk ṣim menāk ly(elyäkormeṃ) ///
b3 n5 ///
rīye menāk pälsk(o) eṅku ṣä(p) • ///
b4 n5 /// (ṣä)p paṣṣīträ snai os= tākoi 30-7
b5 n5 /// pälsko eṅku ṣäp
yudhyeta māraṃ praj(ñ)ā(yudhena)
b6 n5 /// kärsormeṃ 30-8
b7 /// •
anupādānam āśri(tāḥ)


a1 Sanskrit
a2 32 Sanskrit
a3 Sanskrit (The one) conjecturing (conjectures) ... [33c]
a4 Sanskrit But the wise one (strives to control) those conjectures of the mind, [34a]
a5 Sanskrit he abandons (them) without rest for the sake of no (future existence), [34c]
a6 Sanskrit (Having seen this body being similar to a) jar, [35a]
a7 but one should (fight) against Māra with the weapon of wisdom. [35c] Sanskrit
b1 Having recognized this body being similar (to foam), [36a] Sanskrit
b2 Sanskrit Just so (having se)en (this body) being similar to a dwelling, [36b]
b3 Sanskrit and holding the mind firm similar to a city, [37b]
b4 and one should take care that he (= Māra) shall be without home. [37d=38d] Sanskrit
b5 and holding the mind firm. [37b=38b] Sanskrit
b6 Having recognized ... [38a=38d] Sanskrit
b7 Sanskrit [39d]


Linguistic commentary

The text has archaic spellings and the archaic version of the comitative affix: rinästrä (a5), maräṃpa (a7), aiśämñeṣṣe (a7), pälsko (b3, b5), paṣṣīträ (b4).
n3 As translation of Skt. apunarbhavāya (34c) ‘in order to not being born again’ one may assume TB mā näno cmelñeścä. The phrase nano täm- ‘to be born again’ is already recorded, cf. TA mā nunak cmol.
n4 An optative of the verb wätā- ‘to fight’ seems to be the best translation of Skt. yudhyeta ‘one should fight’ (35b). This verb is here construed with comitative while the Sanskrit original has the accusative. Note that the comitative affix has here the form -pa as in other archaic texts. Before we have the oblique singular of mār corresponding to the form maraṃ met in the Uv text PK AS 1A a4.

Parallel texts

Sanskrit (Bernhard 1965: 418-421)

Philological commentary

Instead of Skt. sthūlān in a2 the authoritative text reads sthūlāṃ (33a), while in a4 both our text and the authoritative version have vitarkān (34a) before interpunction. Note also the TB spelling with dotted virāma.
n1 The first akṣara belongs to the TB translation of Skt. nirāśaḥ ‘without (false) hope, expectation’ in the sense of ‘effortless, discouraged’ (32b). Very tentatively one may propose to restore (snai maiy)y(a) ‘without strength, energy’.
n2 As last word of the Sanskrit pāda 33c Lévi 1933 wrongly reads vitarkaṃ and thus this form was recorded by Bernhard 1965, but the manuscript has clearly vitarkāṃ vs. vitarkān in the authoritative text.
n5 The Sanskrit text is very repetitive since pādas b, c, d of each stanza from 35 to 38 are identical; furthermore, the first pāda contains only variations about the object ‘body’ (35a, 36a) or ‘world’ (37a, 38a) and the simile either ‘jar’ (35a, 37a) or ‘foam’ (36a, 38a). Apparently the translator tried to condense the content of these four stanzas, but it was not done consistently. In addition, it is near certain that the stanzas numbered 37 and 38 are permuted compared to the authoritative text. What is surprising is the last pāda of the stanza 38 in the Tocharian text which ends with kärsormeṃ that corresponds to Skt. viditvā of the respective first pāda of all these stanzas. Contrary to the assumption of Bernhard 1965: 420 n4, the Tocharian text of b2 does not presuppose a reconstruction of a different Sanskrit wording as evam āgāropamaṃ ‘just so similar to a dwelling’. That would entail to suppose that the pādas 37a-b had a totally different construction than the other stanzas. It is more likely that ṣim menāk lyelyäkormeṃ is an alternative translation or interpretation that constructed nagaropamaṃ as the supplementary simile after kumbhopamaṃ. Skt. nagara- ‘city’ was understood as ‘dwelling’ and the metaphor of the body as a dwelling or house is quite trivial.

Alternative linguistic/paleographic classifications

Peyrot 2008 A2
Tamai 2011 C14



Lévi 1933: 54; Bernhard 1965: 418-421


Bernhard 1965

Bernhard, Franz. 1965. Udānavarga. Band I, Einleitung, Beschreibung der Handschriften, Textausgabe, Bibliographie. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden 10. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.

Lévi 1933

Lévi, Sylvain. 1933. Fragments de textes koutchéens. Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le «tokharien». Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.

Peyrot 2008

Peyrot, Michaël. 2008. Variation and change in Tocharian B. Vol. 15. Leiden Studies in Indo-European. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.

Tamai 2011

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2011. Paläographische Untersuchungen zum B-Tocharischen. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 138. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen.