• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

SI 3491

Known as:SI 3491; SI P 117; SI P/117
Cite this page as:Adrian Musitz. "SI 3491". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 04 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Adrian Musitz


Main find spot:Kuča
Collection:IOM (St. Petersburg)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:late

Text contents

Text genre:Non-literary
Text subgenre:Letter


Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):40.0 × 29.2 cm
Number of lines:12


a120 1 kṣu ntsa yā śe lā nti pa [ṣpi] ku lne o kta ñce i kaṃ ṣe ne ypo ymo ko wrau po ypo
a2yntse ā rta rsa śwā ra pwā ra ne śau mo ṣe pau śye lau pu tkā¯ ¯r cai mo kṣa rā mṣe pu wa¯ ¯rśä
a3śā mna | ke re ntsi le | kke rci pi le | ptu mpa rre | ca ti le | mi kki ṣo ne | ykāṃ¯ ¯[n]ä | kwa
a4ppa le | śa ṅka le | ke rca pi śke | ke pau ti le | ca pe śa kke | ke pau ti le | ci tre
a5| pu tta mi tre | so ta rkā ne | mi trai yśe | la ra ci we | o kta le | pu ñi caṃ ndre | «sa» «ṅkau» «pte»
a6|ke pau ti le | ta rma se ne | [ku] mpā nti śke | ku tsa wa [n]e pu ta mi tre | pa lā ke | ci [n]a se
a7ne | mi kki nai yśe | ñwe na kke |
a8cai kwa ñye pu wa rne śā mna | cau ki le | pu lu śke | ma la kke | wrau | ci na te we | ka
a9cci nā¯ ¯k wrau | ko lti | pa laṃ nte | ś[i] ṅki śke | ke rca pi śke | o rto nā¯ ¯k ś«†k»i ṅki
a10śke | pu ñyi se ne | ma śu [t]a | a pā rṣe wrau | la ru [t]ti | ko ppe sa le | la re ssa
a11le | sa ṅka tā se | ca mi¯ ¯l | – – mpai yśe | pi [s]su re | pe rnau | pu ttai yśe | śi
a12ṅklo | [n]a wa rā – [|] ca pe¯ ¯ś | ca se ne |


a1 20-1 kṣuntsa yāśe lānti paṣ pikulne oktañce ikäṃ ṣene ypoy moko wrau po ypo-
a2 -yntse ārtarsa śwāra pwārane śaumoṣe pauśye lau putkār cai mokṣarāmṣe puwarś
a3 śāmnakerentsilekkercipilen1ptumparrecatilemikkiṣoneykāṃnkwa-
a4 -ppalen2n2 śaṅkalekercapiśkekepautilecapeśakkekepautilecitre
a5 puttamitresotärkānemitraiyśelaraciweoktalepuñicaṃndresaṅkaupte
a6 kepautiletarmasenekumpāntiśkekutsawane putamitrepalāk(k)ecinase-
a7 -nemikkinaiyśeñwenakke
a8 cai kwañye puwarne śāmnacaukilepuluśkemalakkewraucinateweka-
a9 -ccināk wraukolti । palaṃnte । śiṅkiśkekercapiśkeortonāk śiṅki-
a10 -śkepuñyisenemaśutaapārṣe wraularuttikoppesalen3laressa-
a11 -lesaṅkatāsecamil । – mpaiyśe । pissurepernauputtaiyśeśi-
a12 -ṅklo । nawarā – । capeścasene


a1 In regnal year 21 of king Yāśe, in the year of the rabbit, (in the) eighth (month), on day twenty one, the prefect (and) the Wrau
a2 with the aknowledgment of the whole prefecture (?) distributed the personal service at the beacons. These (are the people) for the Mokṣarām-beacon:
a8 These (are) the people in at the beacon of the post station:


Philological commentary

n1 Note the peculiar onomastic pattern where forms in -śke have a form in -le beside them, e.g. in this case, kercapiśke and kkercipile, cf. also kumpāntiśke (a6 in this document) vs. kumpantile (Kz-181-ZS-Z-01), kepautiśke (PK LC 26 a1, SI 5874 a7) vs. kepautile (a4 and a6 in this document). Note also the form korośkilenmeṃ, in which both suffixes are present.
n2 This name could have some relationship to kwañpe śiṅkro in SI 1877 a3, with -ñp- assimilating to -pp- and the onommastic suffix -le being added.
n3 Maybe originally *kompesale, related to kompile (PK DA M 507.19 a13)? If we compare laressale (a10-11 in this document), we might reconstruct an adjective *kompe of unknown meaning, on which both koppesale and kompile are based.

Alternative linguistic/paleographic classifications

Peyrot 2008b C
Tamai 2011a C14



Takata et al. 2009: 67


Ching 2010: 139, 419, 444; Ching 2017: 386-387; Pinault 1998a


Ching 2010

Ching, Chao-jung. 2010. “Secular documents in Tocharian: Buddhist economy and society in the Kucha region.” PhD thesis, Paris: École Pratique des Hautes Études.

Ching 2017

Ching, Chao-jung. 2017. 吐火罗语世俗文献与古代龟兹历史 – Tocharian secular texts and the history of Ancient Kucha. Beijing: Peking University Press.

Peyrot 2008b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2008b. Variation and change in Tocharian B. Vol. 15. Leiden Studies in Indo-European. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.

Pinault 1998a

Pinault, Georges-Jean. 1998a. “Economic and administrative documents in Tocharian B from the Berezovsky and Petrovsky collections.” Manuscripta Orientalia 4/4: 3–20.

Takata et al. 2009

Takata, Tokio, Kyoto National Museum, and The Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences, eds. 2009. シルクロード文字を辿って : ロシア探検隊収集の文物 – On the trail of texts along the Silk Road: Russian expeditions discoveries of manuscripts in Central Asia. Kyoto: Kyōto-Kokuritsu-Hakubutsukan.

Tamai 2011a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2011a. Paläographische Untersuchungen zum B-Tocharischen. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 138. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen.