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PK NS 55

Known as:PK NS 55; Pelliot Koutchéen Nouvelle Série 55
Cite this page as:Georges-Jean Pinault. "PK NS 55". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-pkns55 (accessed 29 May 2024).


Editor:Georges-Jean Pinault
Date of online publication:2012-02


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:late

Text contents

Title of the work:Dhūtaguṇa
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine
Verse/Prose:prose; verse


Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):6.6 × 20.2 cm
Number of lines:4
Interline spacing:1.6 cm


Images from gallica.bnf.fr by courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Pelliot koutchéen.


a1(–) ṇya kaṃ ñe dhu ta gūṃ pa ñä kte ka ṣṣiṃ tse ā rt[o]¯ ¯s̝ e ṅku tā ka su ṅke po staṃ [ñ](·) ///
a2kaṃ ñ[e] śma śā n[i] kaṃ ñe sa wa rñai śa kta ○ rya dhu ta gu ṇnta ne ka rts(·) ///
a3ṅkā rne || kuse cai ltū we ṣo sta meṃ ma mrau ○ ska¯ ¯s̝ ce¯ ¯u pa lsko sa ///
a4rwa yke po staṃ ṣe¯ ¯k wi kṣe ñcaṃ : tau rmeṃ kutsā reṃ wa stsye ṅko[¯] [¯ṣ] (–) (·)ṣ(·) śwā tsi stā m[ñ]o (–) – ///
b1(–) [ma] stra yai ku ṣpa ne tse tsa mu ne te wa rka¯ ¯l wī ya ma (– – –) ṅkte ā ksa lñ(·) ///
b2ṅku ka lmi sa pi lko spe lkka śau¯ ¯l śai lñe ○ ka lmi s(·) me o mpa lsko ///
b3stwe¯ ¯r ke¯ ¯t tsme ma ne kre ntau na mu ske ma ○ [n]e yo laiṃ ñe ṣe¯ ¯k so mo(·) (·)[ñ](·) ///
b4[ñca] ñ[ä] saṃ va rṣṣe cme la mpe rṣai : śī lne stmo [ṣo] a sta reṃ yo lai ññe sa pro ska ri [l](·)[e] ///


a1-(ra)ṇyakäṃñe dhutagūṃ pañäkte käṣṣiṃtse ārtoṣ eṅku tāka su ṅke postaṃñ(e) /// (āraṇya)-
a2-käṃñe śmaśānikäṃñesa warñai śak tärya dhutaguṇntane karts(e) (yairu) /// (śānaśra)-
1akuse cai ltūweṣ ostameṃ ; mamrauskaṣ ceu palskosa ; ///
Xx; (po) (wänta)a4rwa yke postäṃ ; ṣek wikṣeñcaṃ :
Xxtaurmeṃ kutsāreṃ wastsy eṅkoṣ ; (yāṣ)ṣ(u) śwātsi stām ño(r) – ; ///
Xxb1 (ya)masträ ; yaiku ṣpane tsetsamu ; nete warkṣäl
Xx yama(lñen=) (epi)ṅkte ; āksalñ(e) ///
Xx(e)b2ṅku kalmisa ; pilko spelkka-śaul śailñe ; kalmis= (ī)me
Xxompalsko(ññe) (lamalñe) /// (iṅkauṃ) (kä)b3stwer
Xxket tsmemane krentauna ; muskemane yolaiṃñe ; ṣek somo(tk)ñ(e)
Xx/// (rittäṣṣe)b4ñcañ«†ä»n2n3 saṃvarṣṣe ; cmelamp= erṣai :
Xxśīlne stmoṣo astareṃ ; yolaiññesa prosk= aril(ñ)e ///


a1(The one who) has taken the Dhūtaguṇa consisting of dwelling in the forest, chosen by the Buddha lord, the teacher, this one now finally …
a1+having been well trained in the thirteen Dhūtaguṇas, beginning with (the dwelling in the forest and) the frequentation of cemeteries ...
a2+In the (Śānaśra)ṅkār [tune].
a3These who had left the house, having felt repulsion (for the world), by this thought, … the ones avoiding bit by bit [and] constantly (all obj)ects ; having taken the yellow-reddish (?) garment from dust [heaps], the meal of alms, (sitting) under a tree, …
b1… he does ..., having driven away the sleep, having caused the force [and] energy to grow , … the awakening between the two deeds, …
b1+… having taken the correct view, the living of a live of effort, the correct consciousness, (the sitting in) meditation… by whom (day and) night the virtues [are] being increased, the evil [is] being perished, always likewise …
b3+… (joining) [their] enthusiasm [i.e., devoutness] with the birth characterized by restraint; remaining in the pure good behavior, the giving up of the fear of evil …


Linguistic commentary

The language is not consistent and shows several incorrect or late forms.
n1In this translation it has been decided to take ltuweṣ as a predicate without copula; alternatively, it is possible to take the phrase as referring to religious mendicants: “These religious mendicants, having felt repulsion ...”.
n2In the final words, note the sandhi of proskai + arilñe, a late form for arälñe ‘cessation’, verbal noun of the verb ār(ā)- ‘to cease’, based on the subjunctive I of the ‘Antigrundverb’, inf. ārtsi. In the same line, preceding pāda, cmelampa is perlative plural and constructed with rittā- ‘to join, associate’. This plural may be taken as miswritten for the singular camelmpa (by blurring with the verse form cmelmpa), since the preceding adjective is obl. masc. singular; alternatively, the plural may have been intentional, and saṃvarṣṣeṃ, with obl. plural masculine, should be restored, instead of the feminine saṃvarṣṣana, metri causa. The PPt stmoṣo shows o-mobile inside a colon, which is an unusual position.

Philological commentary

From a3 onwards, the text is in verse (meter 4 x 18, rhythm 7/7/4). The name of the meter is found also in THT 78: b5.
This text mentions thirteen kinds of dhūtaguṇas, i.e. ascetic practices. For lists of those, cf. Edgerton 1953: 286 and Dantinne 1991. Here we find both loan words derived from the Sanskrit terms and adaptations in TB:
  • āraṇyakäṃñe (a1), cf. Skt. āraṇyaka- ‘dwelling in the forest’.
  • śmaśānikäṃñe (a2), cf. Skt. śmāśānika- ‘frequenting cemeteries’.
  • taurmeṃ kutsāreṃ wastsi (a4), cf. Skt. pāṃśukūlika- ‘one who wears refuse rags’, i.e. from dust heaps in order make garments from them. Probably, the adjective kutsāre corresponds to Skt. kāṣāya- ‘yellow-reddish’, the color of the monks’ robe.
  • yāṣṣu śwātsi (a4), cf. Skt. piṇḍapātika- ‘one who lives on alms food’.
  • stām ñor (a4), cf. Skt. vṛkṣamūlika- ‘living at the root of a tree’.
n3The last colon of line b4 has eight syllables unless one assumes colon break between sandhi.


Some remnants of the leaf number are still visible in the left margin on the verso.



Couvreur 1955: 114


Couvreur 1955

Couvreur, Walter. 1955. “Nieuwe Koetsjische fragmenten van de Bibliothèque Nationale te Parijs.” In Handelingen van het Eenentwintigste Vlaams Filologencongres, 110–16.

Dantinne 1991

Dantinne, Jean. 1991. Les qualités de l’ascète (Dhutaguṇa). Étude sémantique et doctrinale. Bruxelles: Thanh-Long.

Edgerton 1953

Edgerton, Franklin. 1953. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit grammar and dictionary. New Haven: Yale University Press.