• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress


Known as:PK AS 15A; Pelliot Koutchéen Ancienne Série 15A; PK NS 350
Cite this page as:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn. "PK AS 15A". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 03 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn
Date of online publication:2012-08


Main find spot:Duldur-Akhur
Expedition code:DA
Collection:Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Departure of the Bodhisattva
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Jātaka/Avadāna
Verse/Prose:prose; verse


Manuscript:PK AS 15
Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):11.4 × 26.3 cm
Number of lines:7
Interline spacing:1.7 cm


a1– – [k](·)· th(·) k(·) [e] [ṅ]k(·) [s]ta ra • [s](·) (–) (·)[th](·) k(·) [ś]· ·ā ña k[ā] ñ(·) tu [r](·) sa swe nm(·) tsr(·) [l]ñ(·) (–) – – ///
a2ni yā tu nā ssa tsa rka llo na a [k]r[ū] [n]a swā [sa] ske ma ne au ntsa te bo dhi sa tve ntse pai ne ///
a3sa tve ysā yo ka ññai po kai ○ rso rmeṃ so pi cce ṣa¯ ¯r ka ntha ke ntse ā ssa ta ///
a4la – ·[su] ma ske lle te¯ ¯kṣp ○ ta¯ ¯ñä lu wā ññe ca me¯ ¯lma kte twe ñi¯ ¯ś [tu] sa ///
a5[me] ñ[i] [śä] pa ñä kta ññe pe rne ○ o¯ ¯t cī saṃ sā ra ṣṣe ka rtkā lle meṃ sa l[k](·) ///
a6[n]au ṣa yā mo rmeṃ au ntsa te ka pi la vā stu śya tsi ṣe kka ṣe kka e ne rsa¯ ¯ṅk l[k]a(·) (·)ī ///
a7sa y[l]ā r· ka klau tkau yo ṅko ma ne tro ppo ma ne bo dhi [s]a t[v]eṃ kwā ma ne ye¯ ¯yä || (–) (·)e ///
b1– [ke] – – – ka mā nte || – – – [k](·) na nts[e] y· nn(·) k(·) [l](·) ñ(·) t(·) k(·)¯ ¯[ts] ///
b2la vā stu rī meṃ lau ke ke ntsa cä rkā re ne • se ya [k]·e [s]te ā jā nai yä kweṃ¯ ¯ts [•] ///
b3ka ntha ke ya kwe nya gro dha ra¯ ¯m ○ we rpi śke [ly]· lya ko rmeṃ we kwe ·rā na y[w]ā ///
b4yke po staṃ yne ma ne ka pi ○ la vā [stu] [rī] lye lya ko rmeṃ la kle[¯] [¯]ñ[ä] wä ///
b5sa po ka pi la vā stu ○ rī ye ī te t[ā] ka || ta ne ka pi la vā s[tu] ///
b6sa swe sa rvā rtha si ddhe pa¯ ¯st klau [tk](·) (–) tu meṃ a rwā re śā mna mkā nte a mā cä nta mñcu ṣka ///
b7si [d](·) (·)e • [t]a ne eṃ ṣ(·)e to¯ ¯t la kle (·)e (–) – – sa tri [k]au waṃ¯ ¯[ts] go pi kai ya śo dha rai [s]a (–) r[ñ]ai – ///


a1 – – k(an)th(a)k(e) eṅk(a)stär«†ä»s(ū) (kan)th(a)k(e) ś· ·ā ña kā ñ· tur· säswenm(eṃ) tsr(e)lñ(esa) – – ///
a2 n1 niyātun āssa tsärkallona akrūna swāsäskemane auntsate bodhisatventse paine(sa) /// (bodhi)-
a3 -satve ysā-yokäññai pokai rsormeṃ sopicce ṣar kanthakentse āssa tä(ttarmeṃ) ///
a4 lä(kles)su mäskelle tek ṣp tañ luwāññe camel • mäkte twe ñiś tusa /// (kälpor)-
a5 -me«ṃ» ñiś«†ä» pañäktäññe perne otsaṃsāräṣṣe kärtkāllemeṃ salk(amar) ///
a6 nauṣ«†ä» yāmormeṃ auntsate kapilavāstuś yatsi ṣekka ṣekka enersäṅk lka(ṣṣ)ī(tär) /// (lakle)-
a7 -sa ylār(e) kaklautkau yoṅkomane troppomane bodhisatveṃ kwāmane yey(tum)e(ṃ) ///
b1 ke – – – kamānte ॥ – – – k·nantse y·nn·k·l·ñ·t·k·ts /// (kapi)-
b2 -lavāstu rīmeṃ lauke kentsa cärkāre-ne • se yak(w)e ste ājānai yäkweṃts • ///
b3 n2 kanthake yakwe nyagrodharam werpiśke ly(e)lyakormeṃ wekwe ·rāna ywā(rc) ///
b4 yke-postäṃ ynemane kapilavāstu lyelyakormeṃ läkleñ wä /// (katkauñai)-
b5 -sa po kapilavāstu rīye īte tāka ॥ tane kapilavāstu(ne) ///
b6 saswe sarvārthasiddhe päst klautk(a) (•) tumeṃ arwāre śāmna mkānte amācänta mñcuṣka(na) /// (sarvārtha)-
b7 -sid(dh)etane eṃṣ(k)e tot läkle(ṣṣ)e – – – sa trikauwaṃts gopikai yaśodharaisa (wa)rñai – ///


a1 ... [The chariot driver Chandaka] seized [the horse] Kanthaka. This Kanthaka ... because of the separation from [his] master ...
a2 ... with the head letting rain burning tears, he began to (bow towards) the feet of the Bodhisattva ...
a3 ... having stretched [his] golden-colored arm [and] having put [his] hand provided with webbing on the head of Kanthaka, the (Bodhi)sattva (says) ...
a4 [you] ought to be full of suffering and this is your animal birth. As you (pay homage?) to me because of that ...
a5 (after) having (obtained) myself the dignity of Buddhahood, I (will) pull you out of the mud of the Saṃsara ...
a6 having made ... before, [the horse or the chariot driver Chandaka] began to go to [the city] Kapilavastu. Again and again he kept looking (back) desperately ...
a7 having become weak, being disturbed, tripping, he kept going calling the Bodhisattva. Thereupon ...
b1 ... they brought. ...
b2 they emitted (the news [of the return of the horse]) out from the city of (Kapi)lavastu far over the earth: "This is the most noble among horses."
b3 The horse Kanthaka, having seen the garden Nyagrodhārāma, ... loudly (?) (in the) middle of ...
b4 having seen the city of Kapilavastu, going [slowly] step by step because of suffering ...
b5 the whole city of Kapilavastu was full of (joy). Then (in) the city of Kapilavastu (the news was heard:)
b6 "The lord Sarvārthasiddha has turned back." Thereupon the people readily ran, ministers, princess(es), ...
b7 "Sarvārthasiddha (is not there)." Then [a crowd of women] beginning with Gopikā Yaśodharā being confused by the sorrowful (news) ...


a5 … having (attained) the Buddha rank, then I will pull you out of this saṃsāra swamp … (Georges-Jean Pinault, p.c.) (Peyrot 2013c: 669)


Parallel texts

Lalitavistara, p. 231, 13-232,6


Complete left part of a leaf with the string hole, PK NS 350 makes a perfect joint on the right side. In the first line of the verso side material from another fragment seems to have been glued over the writing in some cases, which makes the reading difficult.
Information as to the provenance of the PK AS 15 fragments is entirely lost, but PK NS 350 has the expedition code DA.

Philological commentary

n1 The complex niyātun does not have the shape of a regular Tocharian word; one may think of a loan, perhaps referring to horse's ornamental harness.
n2 In the complex wekwe ·rāna we can isolate wek referring to the cry of the horse. One may consider to set up an adverb wekwe "loudly". ·rāna should be the complement of the adverb ywārc.



Waldschmidt 1929: 111-113; Couvreur 1953a: 283-284; Couvreur 1964: 240-241 fn. 17; Bernhard 1958: 14, 49, 97, 184, 206


Peyrot 2013c: a5 (669)


Bernhard 1958

Bernhard, Franz. 1958. “Die Nominalkomposition im Tocharischen.” PhD thesis, Universität Göttingen.

Couvreur 1953a

Couvreur, Walter. 1953a. “Het leven van de Boeddha volgens de Tochaarse bronnen.” In Handelingen van het Twintigste Vlaams Filologencongres, 275–91.

Couvreur 1964

Couvreur, Walter. 1964. “Nieuwe Koetsjische fragmenten van het Araṇemijātaka.” Orientalia Gandensia 1: 237–249 + I.

Peyrot 2013c

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013c. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Waldschmidt 1929

Waldschmidt, Ernst. 1929. Die Legende vom Leben des Buddha in Auszügen aus den heiligen Texten. Berlin: Wegweiser-Verl.