• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

IOL Toch 308

Known as:IOL Toch 308; H fol.168
Cite this page as:Michaël Peyrot. "IOL Toch 308". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 11 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Michaël Peyrot


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:British Library (London)

Language and Script

Language:TB; Sanskrit
Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānavarga
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine


Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):9.2 × 9.9 cm
Number of lines:6


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project and the British Library.


a1/// krau pe 20 3 || || ya cca
a2/// ya ḥ ṣe pa rkā wtse re ki śpā
a3/// ·t· we ñi • a dha rma pa da saṃ
a4/// ·[u] pa śā mya te • kuse ke klyau ṣo rmeṃ no
a5/// a krau pa tte • e kā haṃ jī vi taṃ śre ya ḥ
a6/// kw[r]i s̝pa pi kwa laṃ¯ ¯ts ka nte śā
b1/// ·[yā] yi na ḥ sa dā • ai śa mo pi
b2/// [k]wā re se sī nu ai na ke spe lke • e
b3/// ·e ntse prā kre 5 ya cca va rṣa śa taṃ
b4/// l[ñ]e • e kā haṃ jī vi taṃ śre ya ḥ
b5/// taṃ jī ve¯ ¯t kwri s̝pa pi kwa
b6/// ḥ ṣe me kauṃ śa śā yo


a1 n1 /// kraupe 20-3 ॥ ॥ yac ca
a2 n2 /// (śre)yaḥ ṣe pärkāwtse reki śpā-
a3 -(lmeṃ)n3 /// (kan)t(e) weñi • adharmapadasaṃ-
a4 -(hitaṃ)n4 /// · upaśāmyate • kuse keklyauṣormeṃ no
a5 n5 /// akraupatte • ekāhaṃ jīvitaṃ śreyaḥ
a6 n6 /// kwri ṣpä pikwalaṃts kante śā-
b1 -(yi)n7 /// (dh)yāyinaḥ sadā • aiśamopi
b2 n8 /// (pa)kwāre sesīnu ainake spelke • e-
b3 -(kāhaṃ)n9 /// …·entse prākre 5 yac ca varṣaśataṃ
b4 n10 /// …lñe • ekāhaṃ jīvitaṃ śreyaḥ
b5 n11 /// (varṣaśa)taṃ jīvet kwri ṣpä pikwa-
b6 -(laṃts)n12 /// (śreya)ḥ ṣeme kauṃ śaśāyo-


a1 [TB] the 23rd [verse] collection (about the self). [SKT] even if (one spoke a hundred verses)
a2 [SKT] (one profitable word) is better [TB] one profitable word is better
a3 [TB] (even if) one spoke a hundred (verses) [SKT] if they are composed of senseless words,
a4 [SKT] (having heard it,) one calms down [TB] having heard it, (one calms down)
a5 [TB] (with bad morals) and not concentrated [SKT] a life of one single day is better
a6 [TB] even if one lived a hundred years
b1 [SKT] always for him (who is wise) and meditating [TB] (always) for him who is wise (and meditating)
b2 [TB] lazy and devoid of energy [SKT] (a life of) one single day (is better)
b3 [TB] (for him who exerts) strong (energy) [SKT] even if (one lived) a hundred years
b4 [TB] (not seeing arising and passing away) [SKT] a life of one single day is better
b5 [SKT] (even if) one lived (a hundred years) [TB] even if (one lived a hundred) years
b6 [SKT] (a life of one single day is better) [TB] a life of one single day (is better)


Parallel texts

Bernhard 1965: 296-299; Hahn 2007: 82-83


Fragment of the right side of a leaf: upper, lower and right margins are preserved. On IDP, recto and verso are reversed.

Philological commentary

n1 Uv.23.26end-24.1a ātmavargaḥ || yac ca gāthāśataṃ bhāṣed
n2 Uv.24.1c ekam arthapadaṃ śreyo
n3 Uv.24.2a-b yac ca gāthāśataṃ bhāṣed anarthapadasaṃhitam
n4 Uv.24.2d yac chrutvā hy upaśāmyati, here upaśāmyate. Although upaśāmyati is only reconstructed by Bernhard 1965: 297, it has a parallel in upaśāmyati Uv. 24.1d (which, in turn, has a variant reading (u)paśamyate).
n5 Uv.24.3b-c duḥśīlo hy asamāhitāḥ / ekāhaṃ jīvitaṃ śreyaḥ
n6 Uv.24.4a yac ca varṣaśataṃ jīved
n7 Uv.24.4d prājñasya dhyāyinaḥ sadā
n8 Uv.24.5b-c kusīdo hīnavīryavān / ekāhaṃ jīvitaṃ śreyo
n9 Uv.25.5d-6a vīryam ārabhato dṛḍham // yac ca varṣaśataṃ jīved
n10 Uv.24.6b-c apaśyann udayavyayam / ekāhaṃ jīvitaṃ śreyaḥ
n11 Uv.24.7a yac ca varṣaśataṃ jīved
n12 Uv.24.7c ekāhaṃ jīvitaṃ śreyaḥ


Online access

IDP: IOL Toch 308


Peyrot 2007a: №308; Peyrot 2008a: 105


Bernhard 1965

Bernhard, Franz. 1965. Udānavarga. Band I, Einleitung, Beschreibung der Handschriften, Textausgabe, Bibliographie. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden 10. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.

Hahn 2007

Hahn, Michael. 2007. Vom rechten Leben, Buddhistische Lehren aus Indien und Tibet, Aus dem Sanskrit und aus dem Tibetischen übersetzt und herausgegeben. Frankfurt am Main/Leipzig: Verlag der Weltreligionen (im Insel Verlag).


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Peyrot 2007a

Peyrot, Michaël. 2007a. “An edition of the Tocharian fragments IOL Toch 1 – IOL Toch 822 in the India Office Library.” International Dunhuang Project.

Peyrot 2008a

Peyrot, Michaël. 2008a. “More Sanskrit – Tocharian B bilingual Udānavarga fragments.” Indogermanische Forschungen 113: 83–125.