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IOL Toch 225

Known as:IOL Toch 225; H add.149.105; C.105
Cite this page as:Michaël Peyrot. "IOL Toch 225". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-ioltoch225 (accessed 30 May 2024).


Editor:Michaël Peyrot


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:British Library (London)

Language and Script

Language:Skt.; TB
Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānavarga
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine


Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):9.0 × 4.0 cm
Number of lines:6


Images from idp.bl.uk by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project and the British Library.


a1/// • y[o] na ro
a2/// [r]·[sau] wñe ma ntrā
a3/// – • ya ma s[k]e
a4/// cwī tsme tra
a5/// – sthāṃ • pre re
a6/// [n]ai va pā pa
b1/// ·[kn]· sa¯ ¯s̝p
b2/// ·[kn]· sa • •
b3/// ·[s]· • a sa nto
b4/// – va ma pi [c]e
b5/// – rsa naṃ • dā
b6/// [t]āṃ pa ryu pā


a1n1 /// • yo naro
a2n2 /// (kä)r(t)sauwñe mäntrā-
a3-(kka)n3 /// – • yamaske-
a4-(mane)n4 /// cwī tsmeträ
a5n5 /// (kalāpa)sthāṃprere
a6n6 /// naiva pāpa-
b1-(sakhā)n7 /// (kuce-y)kn(e)sa ṣp
b2n8 /// (te-y)kn(e)sa • •
b3n9 /// (añmant)s(e)asanto
b4n10 /// (jī)vam api ce-
b5-(d)n11 /// (kä)rsanaṃdā-
b6-(rvī)n12 /// (paṇḍi)tāṃ paryupā-


a1[SKT] if a man (ties up)
a2[TB] so virtue (arises from union with the virtuous)
a3[TB] (if one keeps company with someone) who does [bad things]
a4[TB] and he will get (a bad name)
a5[SKT] (a poisoned arrow) [poisons unpoisoned arrows] in a quiver [TB] a (poisoned) arrow [poisons unpoisoned arrows] (in a quiver)
a6[SKT] one (should) not (be friends) with the evil
b1[TB] and like (whom he keeps company with)
b2[TB] (his company is) like that
b3[TB] (seeing) his own (ripened fruit) [SKT] (he should not keep company) with the bad
b4[SKT] even if all his life (a fool)
b5[TB] (he does not) know (the law) [SKT] (like) a spoon [does not know] (the taste of the soup)
b6[SKT] honours the wise


Parallel texts

Bernhard 1965: 312-313; Hahn 2007: 87-88


Fragment from the right side of a leaf: the upper, lower, and right margins are preserved.
According to Broomhead 1962: 363 "[w]ritten in medium ductus, and slightly abraded".

Philological commentary

n1Uv.25.8b yo naro hy upanahyati
n2Uv.25.8d sad evaṃ saṃgamāt satām
n3Uv.25.9b kurvāṇam upasevate
n4Uv.25.9d avarṇaś cāsya vardhate
n5Uv.25.10c śaro liptaḥ kalāpasthān
n6Uv.25.10f naiva pāpasakhā bhavet
n7Uv.25.11b yādṛśaṃ copasevate
n8Uv.25.11d saṃsevā hy asya tādṛśī; the double "• •" just fills the line.
n9Uv.25.12b-c dṛṣṭvā saṃpākam ātmanaḥ / asanto nopaseveta
n10Uv.25.13a yāvajjīvaṃ pi ced bālaḥ; the wording here slightly deviates from Bernhard’s text: we expect °vaṃ pi instead of °vam api with one syllable more.
n11Uv.25.13c-d na sa dharmaṃ vijānāti darvī sūparasān iva, here apparently dārvī (the akṣara is clear).
n12Uv.25.14b paṇḍitāṃ paryupāsate


Online access

IDP: IOL Toch 225


Broomhead 1962: 363-364; Peyrot 2007: №225; Peyrot 2008a: 108


Bernhard 1965

Bernhard, Franz. 1965. Udānavarga. Band I, Einleitung, Beschreibung der Handschriften, Textausgabe, Bibliographie. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden 10. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.

Broomhead 1962

Broomhead, J.W. 1962. “A textual edition of the British Hoernle, Stein and Weber Kuchean manuscripts. With transliteration, translation, grammatical commentary and vocabulary. I = Edition.” PhD, Cambridge: Trinity College.

Hahn 2007

Hahn, Michael. 2007. Vom rechten Leben, Buddhistische Lehren aus Indien und Tibet, Aus dem Sanskrit und aus dem Tibetischen übersetzt und herausgegeben. Frankfurt am Main/Leipzig: Verlag der Weltreligionen (im Insel Verlag).


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d. http://idp.bl.uk.

Peyrot 2007

Peyrot, Michaël. 2007. “An edition of the Tocharian fragments IOL Toch 1 – IOL Toch 822 in the India Office Library.” International Dunhuang Project. 2007. http://idp.bl.uk/database/oo_cat.a4d?shortref=Peyrot_2007.

Peyrot 2008a

Peyrot, Michaël. 2008a. “More Sanskrit – Tocharian B bilingual Udānavarga fragments.” Indogermanische Forschungen 113: 83–125.