Work in progress

IOL Toch 1244

Known as:IOL Toch 1244; IOL Toch 809; Tb 112
Cite this page as:Michaël Peyrot. "IOL Toch 1244". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 23 Apr. 2024).


Editor:Michaël Peyrot


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:British Library (London)

Language and Script

Language:Skt.; TB
Linguistic stage:archaic

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānavarga
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine


Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):5.0 × 6.0 cm


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project and the British Library.


a1/// – ///
a2/// ·[k]· – [l]·i ñä ṣt[ra] – ///
a3/// ai [rṣai] [tsa] ññe ·e (–) – – ///
a4/// [kṣ]· nti mi hā hu rā rya • ·e ///
a5/// – [•] [w]e r·i· ·ṃ ·[e] /// /// – ·ṣ· [m]· sk[e] • kro dhā – ///
a6/// [t]y· va de nna ca kru ·e ///
a7/// – ryu kta • wä nta rwa ///
b1/// k[ut]e meṃ śco no • dā nt· ///
b2/// [s]·i pra jā na ta ḥ • [ś]·· ///
b3/// n· • kus· ·c· [n]· ·[c]· (–) ·[y]· [t]· /// /// – ··ṃ – nä no • kru ·e ///
b4/// ye¯ ¯t [w]e ta wai me ne yu [k]· ///
b5/// – lai nä ka rttse w[ñ]e – (– –) – ///
b6/// 10 9 a kru dha – ///
b7/// – ///


a1 /// – ///
a2 n1 /// ·k· – l·i ñäṣträ – ///
a3 n2 /// airṣaitsäññe ·e – – – ///
a4 n3 /// kṣ(ā)ntim ihāhur ārya • ·e ///
a5 n4n5 /// – • wer(ts)i(ya)ṃ(n)e /// /// – · ṣ(e)m(e)ske • krodhā(bhibhūtaḥ) ///
a6 n6 /// (sa)ty(aṃ) vaden na ca kru(dhy)e(t) ///
a7 n7 /// (tribhi)r yukta • wäntärwa(sa) ///
b1 n8 /// kutemeṃ ścono • dānt(asya) ///
b2 n9n10 /// (nā)s(t)i prajānataḥ • ś(cono) ///
b3 n11n12 /// n· • kus(e) (ś)c(o)n(aiś)c(ä) – ·y· t· /// /// – ··ṃ – näno • kru(ddh)e(ṣv) ///
b4 n13 /// (ja)yet weta waimene yuk(atsi) ///
b5 n14 /// (yo)lainä kärttsewñe(sa) – – – ///
b6 n15 /// 10-9 akrudha(sya) ///
b7 /// – ///


a1 ...
a2 [TB] (who) endures (reproach)
a3 [TB] (and for reasons of) impetuosity, (to a fellow man)
a4 [SKT] the wise call that (the highest form of) endurance
a5 [TB] in assemblies (or) privately [SKT] (when man is overcome) by anger
a6 [SKT] one should speak what is true, one should not be angry
a7 [SKT] provided with these three (things) [TB] (provided with these three) things
b1 [TB] from where could anger come (to the tranquil man) [SKT] who is restrained (and lives in balance?)
b2 [SKT] for him who understands, there is no (anger) [TB] (for him who understands, there is no) anger
b3 [TB] he who, being angered, becomes angry in return [SKT] (but who is not angered) with [others’] angers
b4 [SKT] he would win (a fight that is difficult to win) [TB] (he would win) a fight that is difficult to win
b5 [TB] (one should overcome) evil with the good
b6 [SKT] (from where could anger come) to him who is not angry
b7 ...


Linguistic commentary

The fragment is archaic because it shows ä for class. a (/ə́/) and ew for class. au: ñäṣträ a2; wäntärwa(sa) a7 kärttsewñe(sa) b5.

Parallel texts

Bernhard 1965: 273-276; Chakravarti 1930: 255-257; Hahn 2007: 71-72


The fragments IOL Toch 809 and IOL Toch 1244 belong to the same leaf: IOL Toch 1244 a5 (the last line) is continued by IOL Toch 809 a5 (the first line), and IOL Toch 809 b3 (the last line) continues IOL Toch 1244 b3 (the first line). Since the precise wording of the Tocharian text in both instances is not known, it is not feasible to reconstruct an image or to count out the number of missing syllables, if any.

Philological commentary

n1 Uv.20.13d yo ’tivākyaṃ titīkṣati
n2 Uv.20.14b saṃrambhahetoḥ sadṛśasya caiva
n3 Uv.20.14d tām uttamāṃ kṣāntim ihāhur āryāḥ. We find ārya for regular āryāḥ, but note that the pausa visarga is not written in this manuscript: it lacks in a5 for mithaḥ (– • instead), in a7 for yuktaḥ (yukta • instead) and in b3 for punaḥ (n· • instead).
n4 Uv.20.15b-c pariṣatsv atha vā mithaḥ / krodhābhibhūtaḥ puruṣaḥ
n5 The reading of this line is particularly uncertain (and changed slightly compared to Peyrot 2008a: 103), since in IOL Toch 1244 only the upper part of some akṣaras is visible, and in IOL Toch 809 only the lower. As I do not know how to restore the whole line, the number of missing syllables is uncertain; it is possible that the last e-vowel of IOL Toch 1244 belongs to (the first akṣara of) ṣemeske on IOL Toch 809.
n6 Uv.20.16a satyaṃ vaden na ca krudhyed
n7 Uv.20.16c sthānair ebhis tribhir yukto
n8 Uv.20.17a-b śāntasya hi kutaḥ krodho dāntasya samajīvinaḥ
n9 Uv.20.17d krodho nāsti prajānataḥ
n10 traces of the c and the o of ścono can be seen, too.
n11 Uv.20.18b-c yaḥ kruddhe krudhyate punaḥ | kruddheṣv akruddhamānas tu
n12 On IOL Toch 809, a little piece from the recto is flipped over at the left. I do not know how to restore this line either, so the number of missing akṣaras, if any, is uncertain. In Peyrot 2008a: 104 I had reconstructed a (ś)c(o)n(aine), which is not in accordance with the manuscript traces: what seems to be [c] (the line is going slightly up) suggests rather an (ś)c(o)n(aiś)c(ä).
n13 Uv.20.18d saṃgrāmaṃ durjayaṃ jayet
n14 Uv.20.19b asādhuṃ sādhunā jayet
n15 Uv.20.20a akruddhasya kutaḥ krodho, here apparently akrudha(sya).

Alternative linguistic/paleographic classifications

Peyrot 2008 A2
Tamai 2011 C14


Online access

IDP: IOL Toch 809, IOL Toch 1244


Tamai 2007: №1244; Peyrot 2007: №809; Peyrot 2008a: 103-104


Bernhard 1965

Bernhard, Franz. 1965. Udānavarga. Band I, Einleitung, Beschreibung der Handschriften, Textausgabe, Bibliographie. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden 10. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.

Chakravarti 1930

Chakravarti, Niranjan Prasad. 1930. L‘Udānavarga sanskrit, Texte sanscrit en transcription, avec traduction et annotations, suivi d‘une étude critique et de planches. Tome premier (Chapitres I à XXI). Paris: Geuthner.

Hahn 2007

Hahn, Michael. 2007. Vom rechten Leben, Buddhistische Lehren aus Indien und Tibet, Aus dem Sanskrit und aus dem Tibetischen übersetzt und herausgegeben. Frankfurt am Main/Leipzig: Verlag der Weltreligionen (im Insel Verlag).


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Peyrot 2007

Peyrot, Michaël. 2007. “An edition of the Tocharian fragments IOL Toch 1 – IOL Toch 822 in the India Office Library.” International Dunhuang Project.

Peyrot 2008

Peyrot, Michaël. 2008. Variation and change in Tocharian B. Vol. 15. Leiden Studies in Indo-European. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.

Peyrot 2008a

Peyrot, Michaël. 2008a. “More Sanskrit – Tocharian B bilingual Udānavarga fragments.” Indogermanische Forschungen 113: 83–125.

Tamai 2007

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2007. “An edition of the Tocharian fragments IOL Toch 853 – IOL Toch 1247 in the India Office Library, London.” The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.

Tamai 2011

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2011. Paläographische Untersuchungen zum B-Tocharischen. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 138. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen.