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G-Qm 1

Known as:G-Qm 1; Kz-039-ZS-L-01
Cite this page as:Adrian Musitz (commentary transcription translation transliteration). "G-Qm 1". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-gqm1 (accessed 17 Jul. 2024).


Editor:Adrian Musitz (commentary transcription translation transliteration)


Main find spot:Kizil Sayram
Specific find spot:Grotte E

Language and Script



Material: ocher on wall
Number of lines:2


a1[b]a hu [p]a yi kne || m[ā] [wa] ·[k]· [ṅk]· [e] pi kte ka [r]t·e [ā] k·a p[e] l· [k]·e – [na] [k]· – – ¯[r] : [t]· ya¯ ¯k [p]ta nma sa [kr]ā ma tau wi tā kaṃ snai l[y]ī pa¯ ¯r – (–)
a2[yke] po [staṃ] : s·¯ ¯k ñke [t]e po – ·[e] ma – [¯k] – lī ·e m· [nai] ce¯ ¯y a lye k[o] – meṃ yo ksi ka lwā ske¯ ¯[m] pe lai


a1bahupayikne wa(l)k(e) ṅk(e) epikte kart(s)e āk(ṣ)a pel(ai)k(n)enäk· – – r : t(o)yak ptanmasa krāma tau wi tākaṃ snai lyīpär – –
a2yke-postäṃ : k ñke te po(staññ)e ma(nta)k ·e m·nai cey alyek o(sta)meṃ yoksi kälwāskem pelai


a1In the Bahu-upāyika tune: Not for long did he teach the law well.
a2In these stūpas, if there are two... completely... bit by bit now this later... never ... They get drink from another home.


Philological commentary

The transcription is a compromise between Pinault and Zhao and Rong. The plaster on top of which the inscription is written has broken off in a lot of places. This makes the inscription exceedingly difficult to read.

Alternative linguistic/paleographic classifications

Peyrot 2008C
Tamai 2011C14



Pinault 1987: 170-172; Zhao and Rong 2020: 72-73


Peyrot 2008

Peyrot, Michaël. 2008. Variation and change in Tocharian B. Vol. 15. Leiden Studies in Indo-European. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.

Pinault 1987

Pinault, Georges-Jean. 1987. “Épigraphie koutchéenne. I. Laissez-passer de caravanes. II. Graffites et inscriptions.” Sites divers de la région de Koutcha, Mission Paul Pelliot, Documents archéologiques, 8: 59–196 + XL.

Tamai 2011

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2011. Paläographische Untersuchungen zum B-Tocharischen. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 138. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen.

Zhao and Rong 2020

Zhao, Li, and Xinjiang Rong, eds. 2020. Cave inscriptions in Ancient Kucha. Shanghai: Zhongxi Book Company.