• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

A 411

Known as:A 411; THT 1045
Cite this page as:Gerd Carling. "A 411". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 09 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Gerd Carling


Main find spot:Siŋgim
Expedition code:T II S 50.3
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script


Text contents

Text genre:Literary


Manuscript:A 409-411
Material: ink on paper
Number of lines:4


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


a1/// sk· ya ṣṣa śśi – tse ntu pu kw· ///
a2/// ma rka mpa lṣi ñe mi sne ñā tse ///
a3/// l[m]eṃ tri p[ra] ṣta ṣta ṣi nā¯ ¯s p[u]¯ – ///
b2/// n· kta¯ ¯ñä n· vā si kāṃ tṣā kly· ///
b3/// ṣī n· wa rtsi pa ri [v]ā r· ntwa śä¯ ¯l ·s· ///
b4/// [pa] ska la[ṃ] ñtā ke¯ ¯ñcä tri ñe mi ///


a1 n1 /// sk(e)yaṣṣ aśśi – tsentu puk w· ///
a2 /// märkampalṣi ñemi sne-ñātse ///
a3 /// lmeṃ tri praṣta«†ṣta»ṣinās pu – ///
a4 ///
b1 ///
b2 /// n(ä)ktañ n(ai)vāsikāṃ tṣā kly· ///
b3 /// ṣīn(i) wartsi parivār· ntwaśäl ·s· ///
b4 /// päskalaṃñ tākeñc tri ñemi ///


a1 ... if he tries (to drive off ?) all dangers (?) ...



Transcription and references have been transferred from the "Text and Reference Database of the Tocharian A Language" (Gerd Carling Lund University) (funded by the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation and SCAS).
Transcription and translation are based on Carling et al. 2009.

Philological commentary

n1 The restoration of Siegling's personal copy (ñā)tsentu makes good sense from a semantic point of view. The akṣara remnants, however, render this reading improbable.


Online access

IDP: THT 1045; TITUS: THT 1045


Sieg and Siegling 1921a: 228; Sieg and Siegling 1921a p. 228


Carling et al. 2009

Carling, Gerd, Georges-Jean Pinault, and Werner Winter. 2009. A dictionary and thesaurus of Tocharian A. Volume 1: Letters a-j. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Sieg and Siegling 1921a

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1921a. Tocharische Sprachreste, I. Band. Die Texte. A. Transcription. Berlin/Leipzig: de Gruyter.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”