• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

A 408.a

Known as:A 408.a; THT 1042a; Bleistiftnummer 3112
Cite this page as:Michaël Peyrot. "A 408.a". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 04 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Michaël Peyrot


Main find spot:Siŋgim
Expedition code:T II S 19.20; T II S 19.19f
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script


Text contents

Title of the work:Bhikṣuṇī-Prātimokṣasūtra?
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Vinaya


Manuscript:A 415-416
Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):6.4 × 3.8 cm
Number of lines:5



a1/// – || a śśe sne ///
a2/// ktsu ○ ///
a3/// [kl]u ṣṭaṃ ○ ///
a4/// – ka tra ○ ///
a5/// – ka¯ ¯rm – ///
b1/// [s]·¯ ¯[r]k – ///
b2/// – ¯ñä ○ ///
b3/// ·[ā] li ○ ///
b4/// ppi ○ ///
b5/// – ca ṣprā • [c]· ///


a1 n1 /// – ॥ aśśe sne ///
a2 n2 /// ktsu ///
a3 /// klu ṣṭaṃ ///
a4 /// – kä trä ///
a5 /// – karm – ///
b1 /// s(a)rk – ///
b2 /// – ñ ///
b3 /// ·āli ///
b4 /// (aka)ppi ///
b5 /// – caṣ prā • c· ///


a1 ... || Of the nun without ...
a2 ... foolishness (?) ...
a3 ...
a4 ...
a5 ...
b1 ... cycle ...
b2 ...
b3 ...
b4 ... impurity ...
b5 ...



In one frame with A 408 and A 408.b-A 408.i. The left part of the string hole space, which covers lines 2-4, is preserved. Although this fragment is not edited by Ogihara 2009a, the word aśśe may be an indication that it belongs to the Bhikṣuṇī-Prātimokṣasūtra. Therefore, it is provisionally assumed that it belongs to manuscript A 415-416, not to A 406-408.

Philological commentary

n1 aśśe: this could be the attestation noted in Sieg et al. 1931: 87 as "Frgm.".
n2 /// ktsu ///: possibly (ā)ktsu(ne).


Online access

IDP: THT 1042a



“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Ogihara 2009a

Ogihara, Hirotoshi. 2009a. “Researches about Vinaya-texts in Tocharian A and B [Recherches sur le Vinaya en tokharien A et B].” PhD thesis, Paris: École Pratique des Hautes Études.

Sieg et al. 1931

Sieg, Emil, Wilhelm Siegling, and Wilhelm Schulze. 1931. Tocharische Grammatik. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.