• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

THT 90

Known as:THT 90; B 90
Cite this page as:Melanie Malzahn. "THT 90". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 22 Feb. 2024).


Editor:Melanie Malzahn


Main find spot:Šorčuq
Expedition code:T III Š 93.14
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Araṇemijātaka
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Jātaka/Avadāna
Verse/Prose:prose; verse


Manuscript:Araṇemi α
Material: ink on paper
Number of lines:6


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


a1/// ta twā ṅkau ta po vaṃ va rtto śya
a2/// [ka] [r]y(·) (·)t(·) [¯]ñcä a llo ka kca stā na sa ā
a3/// llā wra mno [ā] rw[a] ka rsnā ma ne ści re na
a4/// ya ne a ru ṇ[ā] v[a] ti ri¯ ¯ś so rro¯ ¯mp ka
a5/// – yo¯ ¯k e nte nai kca ne sta ñke ñi ssa
a6/// [wa] rtto yne ma [ne] re ske¯ ¯ñä ysā ra : a
b1/// [ñ][ra]¯ ¯mt ści ri – [•] ta ññe cau yai tko
b2/// [m](·) lā nt[n]e mai yyā cce we¯ ¯r e pi ya¯ ¯c
b3/// – ko rmeṃ i [s](·)a¯ ¯k trai ka ne || tu meṃ
b4/// || śle tre meṃ (–) hma ṇe we s̝s̝aṃ hai ma
b5/// (·)·[e] kau [na] kauṃ pa rki a ksau ne mā śwā tsi
b6/// – t[e] sne wā ṣpi nnau ya nnai


a1 n1 /// tatwāṅkau tapovaṃ varttoś ya(ṃ)
a2 n2n3 /// käry(ort)t(a)ñc allokä kca stānasa ā-
a3 -(rwa) /// (ta)llāw ram no ārwa kärsnāmane ścirenäṃ
a4 n4 /// yane aruṇāvati riś sorromp ka-
a5 -(klāyau)n5n6n7n8 /// (ñäkte)-yok ente nai kca nesta ñke ñissa
a6 n8 /// wartto ynemane reske«ṃ»-ñ ysāra : a…
b1 n8n9 /// (me)ñ ramt ściri(nne)taññe cau yaitko-
b2 -(rsa) /// (araṇe)m(iṃ) lāntne maiyyācce wer epiyac
b3 n10n11 /// – kormeṃ is(t)ak traika{n/t}etumeṃ
b4 n12 /// ॥ śle tremeṃ (brā)hmaṇe weṣṣäṃ hai ma-
b5 -(ṇiśvara) /// (r)ekauna kauṃ-parki aksau-neśwātsi
b6 n13 /// te sne ṣpinnau yan nai


a1 .... wrapped in ... he go(es) to the ascetic-grove.
a2 ... the merchants ... some other ... (cutting woo)d from trees
a3 ... like a (miser)able one cutting wood, (with?) hard ...
a4 ... to the town Aruṇāvatī. (Having) fallen down ...
a5 ... [you] (divine?)-looking one, wherever you are now, by me ...
a6 ... while walking into the forest, blood (pl.) is running from me. ...
b1 ... like the (mo)on (below) the stars. (By) this your command
b2 ... remember(ing) the strong hatred against king (Araṇe)mi,
b3 ... after having ..., he immediately fainted. Thereupon
b4 .... Full of wrath the (Bra)hmin speaks: “Hey, Ma(ṇīśvara)! ... “
b5 ... (w)ords I will announce him at sunrise. No food ...
b6 ...


b5 [These] words I will announce to him at sunrise: «Not eating …» (cf 320) (Peyrot 2013b: 655)


Philological commentary

The translation basically follows Schmidt 2001: 320.
Between THT 89 and THT 91 there is a gap of 18 leaves. Into this gap belongs this fragment, which might follow THT 89 immediately (pace Schmidt 2001: 319), as well as the Uyghur text Mainz 223, which is taken from a manuscript collection of the Berlin Turfan collection (cf. U 2293). In the meantime, King Araṇemi has given everything that he has been asked for — not only his children, but also his wife and, eventually, himself also. As a result, Araṇemi has fallen into the hands of his vindictive arch enemy Rudramukha. The Mainz text is also translated in Schmidt 2001: 321. In English, it runs as follows:
Onto [ ] he looked. Thus he suffered. But he did not let his mind desist from [torturing] this [king]. Continuing to drag (him) up and down on the unclean ground the tortured and tormented him. Sometimes he shamelessly kicked him against [his] head with [his] feet. The body of the noble one turned altogether black. (Yet still) the king looked with his eyes beautiful as purple-blue lotuses at the Brahmin. At this time the Brahmin Rudramukha’s wife saw the king [Araṇe]mi and spoke thus to her husband, the Brahmin: “As a very noble and mild man with good deeds he appears. Do not torment him more! If he is useless to you, sell him to someone else!” At this time the king Araṇemi entered into in such humiliation and bitter sufferings through the Brahmin, his heart and his mind, however, grew friendly and cheerful. Why? For through the Brahmin he had accomplished the pāramitā of patience. Then he let him don a very (?) bad, dingy gown fit for a slave, and they led him through the streets to sell him. When they reached the gate of Caṇḍālas a man holding a sword in [his] hand asked the Brahmin: “Are you selling this man?”
The storyline of this small fragment is less clear.
n1 Schmidt 2001: 320 seem to restore ya〈ṃ〉.
n3 Thomas Sieg and Siegling 1983: 244 proposes the restoration ā(rwa kärsnāmane), parallel to line a3.
n4 Thomas Sieg and Siegling 1983: 244 correctly points out that Krauses's restoration (wā)ya-ne 'he went' in Krause 1952: 219 cannot be correct, because we would expect (wa)yā-ne.
n7 Schmidt 2001: 320, fn. 118 correctly points out that the restoration (lare)-yok proposed in Sieg and Siegling 1953 and again by Thomas in Sieg and Siegling 1983: 244 cannot be correct, because the damaged akṣara looks like either 〈ka〉 or 〈na〉. Schmidt himself thinks about an attribute meaning 'base, common', but no such form known yet fits here. Since the context is not so clear, I would rather propose ñäkte-yok ‘divine looking'.
n8 The passage is metrical; according to Sieg/Siegling the meter has 4x18 (7/7/4) syllables. The metrical subdivision in line a 5 is not too certain; Thomas Sieg and Siegling 1983: 244 proposes yok ; ente nai kca nesta ñke ; ñissa, but if nesta is a genuine disyllabic form, it ought to stand at the end of a colon (see also below).
n9 For the simile Thomas Sieg and Siegling 1983: 244 refers to the parallel THT 389 b 2.
n10 At the beginning of the line, Schmidt 2001: 320, fn. 120 proposes to restore [pru]kormeṃ 'after he had done (?) a leap', and while the remains of the upper part of the akṣara may belong to a 〈pa〉, the lower part is too edgy for a second-element 〈ra〉.
n11 It is likely that the finite verbal form means ‘fainted', in which case it ought to be a middle (see Schmidt 2001: 320, fn. 121 wit ref.). Accordingly, traikane has to be corrected into traikate, as already proposed by Sieg/Siegling.
n12 The personal name of the merchant already met in THT 89 is restored by Schmidt 2001: 320.
n13 Word separation and interpretation of line b6 is completely unclear.


Fragment from the right side of a leaf, possibly directly following THT 89, in which case it was originally leaf 24 of the manuscript.

Linguistic commentary

n2 It is unclear to what form the allonkä kca is referring to. The word-final -ä is preservered because of the following clitic.
n5 nesta seems to stand for nestä with preservation of the word-final -ä; since such forms with preserved schwa usually stand at the end of a sentence/pāda/colon (see Malzahn 2012a: esp. p. 75f.), it is likely that we also have a pāda/colon end here; note that inside one single colon the correct meter could also have been achieved by nest ñake.
n6 Note the gemination in the pronoun ñisa ‘by me'.

Alternative linguistic/paleographic classifications

Tamai 2011 C5
Tamai 2011 C14


Online access



Sieg and Siegling 1953: 27-28


Carling 2000: a6 (55, 112); Peyrot 2013b: b5 (655); Schmidt 2001: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 (320); Thomas 1983: a6 (11)


Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd. 2000. Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Krause 1952

Krause, Wolfgang. 1952. Westtocharische Grammatik, Band I. Das Verbum. Heidelberg: Winter.

Malzahn 2012a

Malzahn, Melanie. 2012a. “Now you see it, now you don’t — Bewegliches –o in Tocharisch B.” In Linguistic developments along the Silk Road: Archaism and Innovation in Tocharian, edited by Olav Hackstein and Ronald I. Kim, 834:33–82. Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Klasse. Wien: Verlag der ÖAW.

Peyrot 2013b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013b. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Schmidt 2001

Schmidt, Klaus T. 2001. “Die westtocharische Version des Araṇemi-Jātakas in deutscher Übersetzung.” In De Dunhuang à Istanbul. Hommage à James Russell Hamilton, edited by Louis Bazin and Peter Zieme, 299–327. Silk Road Studies 5. Turnhout: Brepols.

Sieg and Siegling 1953

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1953. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, Heft 2. Fragmente Nr. 71-633. Edited by Werner Thomas. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Sieg and Siegling 1983

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1983. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B. Teil I: Die Texte. Band 1. Fragmente Nr. 1-116 der Berliner Sammlung. Edited by Werner Thomas. Neubearbeitet und mit einem Kommentar nebst Register versehen v. Werner Thomas. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”

Tamai 2011

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2011. Paläographische Untersuchungen zum B-Tocharischen. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 138. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen.

Thomas 1983

Thomas, Werner. 1983. Der tocharische Obliquus im Sinne eines Akkusativs der Richtung. Abhandlungen d. Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 6. Mainz: Verlag d. Akad. d. Wissenschaften und d. Literatur.