• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

THT 428

Known as:THT 428; B 428; Bleistiftnummer 2462
Cite this page as:"THT 428". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 11 Dec. 2023).


Main find spot:Murtuq
Expedition code:T III M 14
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:late

Text contents

Title of the work:History of Buddhist scholarship
Passage:Parīkṣā of Nāgasena; teachers Dharmasoma and Ratna° from Pāṃce
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:History


Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):14.8 × 10.2 cm
Number of lines:9


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project Berlin, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


a1/// [yo] mā [r]gñ·¯ ¯m [wa] re ññe ///
a2/// p· ri¯ ¯ks̝ ra no nā ga se ni śau ///
a3/// r[t]se sa cau [na] nau ka [k]lā mtte ā ri¯ ¯s̝ ///
a4/// ·[p]· rto lle toṃ ra [na] no¯ ¯k klā mtte wī śa sta rma ///
a5/// [l]· swe ntwe ce ṣa lywe s[a] gra kṣe wa ka nma ///
a6/// ·[m]· tsi¯ ¯s̝ śau la nma¯ ¯s ñu [ñc]e ///
a7/// rwe tti kā ta¯ ¯r wa rtto ne [m]ā¯ – ///
a8/// [cca] cwi pā ce[¯] [¯r] ///
b2/// [s̝]a pu tka lñe ///
b3/// k·e nta spā rtto sa kly[au] tkā ·t· ///
b4/// [t]n· [t]se mtsa śā saṃ ṣṣe pe ñyai ///
b5/// [w]· [me] [pre] ñcai pe l[ai] [kn]e ṣṣe śo mpo ///
b6/// kā[¯] [¯r] ce ypo yne dha rma so me ra [tna] ///
b7/// yne ś[i] ye ne [pāṃ] ce ypo yne wī ka [ṣ]·ī ///
b8/// [¯s̝] [w]e syi rse mtä¯ ¯r pkwa lñe ///
b9/// l[ñ]e ne – 5 śa [k]we s(·)o ///


a1 /// yomārg ñ(e)m wareññe ///
a2 /// p(a)rikṣ rano nāgaseni śau ///
a3 /// rtsesa cau nänauk«†ä» klāmtte āri ///
a4 /// (s)p(o)rtolle toṃ ra nänok klāmtte śastarma ///
a5 /// l· sw entwe ce ṣalywesa grakṣe wakanma ///
a6 /// ·m·tsiṣ śaulanmas ñuñce ///
a7 /// rwetti kātär warttone(ṣ) ///
a8 /// cca cwi pācer ///
a9 ///
b1 ///
b2 /// ṣ«†ä» putkalñe ///
b3 /// k(r)entä spārttosa klyautkā(m)t(e) ///
b4 /// tn(e) tsemtsa śāsaṃṣṣe peñyai ///
b5 /// w· me preñcai pelaikneṣṣe śompo ///
b6 /// kār ce ypoyne dharmasome ratna ///
b7 /// yneśi yene pāṃce ypoyne wīkäṣ(ṣ)ī ///
b8 /// wes yirsemtär pkwalñe ///
b9 /// lñene (10-)5 śak wes ·o ///


Online access

IDP: THT 428; TITUS: THT 428


Sieg and Siegling 1953: 284-285


Carling 2000: a7 (115)


Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd. 2000. Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Sieg and Siegling 1953

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1953. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, Heft 2. Fragmente Nr. 71-633. Edited by Werner Thomas. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”